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Full text of "Reminiscences of nearly half a century in Japan"

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DS894 
.28 

.D86D86 
1991 

農 • 畜産 関係お 雇い 外国人 教師 研究 モノ グラフ 



Edwin Dun: 

Reminiscences of Nearly Half a Century in Japan 

(翻刻) 



西 


出 


公 之 


川 


端 


喬 


梅 


津 


勝 


梅 


津 


一 孝 



まえがき 




ここに 翻刻した の は、 Re 黼 iniscences of Nearly a Half Century in 
Japan と 題され た Ed 曹 in Dun の 回想録で ある 。^ 

元の 原稿 は 故 高 倉 新 一 as 氏が 新 蔵 されて いた 1h くが、 我々 が 翻刻す るに 
あたって 利用で きたの は、 「ダンと 町村 記念 事業 ft 会 J 所蔵の 電子 複写で あ 
る。 一 揮 不鮮明な 窗所 について は、 北海道 大学 附属 図書館 北方 資料室 所蔵の 
電子 複写 を 参照した。 

Reminiscences of Nearly a Half Century in Japan は、 高 倉 w —郎 氏が 
邦訳し、 招 和 37 年に 「日本に おける 半世紀の 回想 J の 題で ェ ドウ イン • ダン 
頃彰 会から 出) R されて いるが、 その 英語) R は出販 されて いない。 

屎稿 は、 大 » 分 タイプされ ており、 読みに くい わけで はない が、 独特の 分 
かち 害き、 タイ ビングの 教 りな ども 多く、 人名 • 地 名の 表記が 標準 的で ない 
場合 も ある。 また、 意味 は 取れる ものの、 文法的に は 非 文と 言わざる を 得な 
いような もの も 散見され る。 我々 は、 ダンが 出 贩 すると すれば、 当然 修正し 
たであろう ような 点 を 正した エディ シ ヨン を 刊行す る こと を 計画して いるが、 
まず、 資料と して 頁 • 行 などの 体裁 を そのままに 翻刻し ようと 考えた。 それ 
が 本 冊子で ある。 

翻刻に あたって は、 明らかな ミス スペリング や、 タイピング • エラー を 正 
し、 日本人 名 や B 本の 地名 は樣準 的な 表記に 直した が、 独特の 分かち書きと 
破格 構文に ついては、 そのまま にした。 なお、 原文に は 無い がどうしても 必 
要と 思われる 前置 調な ど は、 [ ] を 付けて 捕った。 また、 疑問が ある もの 
の 修正し にくい ところ は、 [sic] と 記し、 今回 は そのまま にして おいた。 

本 翻刻 は、 平成 2 年度の 文節 省 科学 研究 费複助 金 一般 研究 B を 受けて 行な 
われて いる 「農 • 畜産 W 係の S 拓使 お雇い 外国人 教 » の 技術 指導に 閱 する 実 
IE 的 事例研究 一一 報 文お よ び 書簡な どの 翻刻 を 中心とする 書誌 的 整備 と 技術 
移転に ついての 考察 一— J (研究 代表者: 川端 香) の 成果の 一揮で ある。 

平成 2 年 11 月 11B 



西 
川 
梅 
梅 



出 
端 
津 
津 



公 之 

勝 

一 孝 



REMINISCENCES OF NEARLY A HALF CENTURY IN JAPAN. 

by BDNIN 蘭 
Pomer United States Minister to Tokyo. 



In the early seventies 謂 y father, his three brothers and one 
sister were large land owners in central Ohio, Owning anong then about 
15,000 acres of, perhaps, the finest "blue grass land" to be found 
outside of Kentucky. Their business was, in general, the handling of live 
stock - cattle, sheep, and hogs - for the eastern markets, but also, in 
particular, the rearing of thorough bred "Short Horn* cattle, horses, pigs 
and sheep for the iniprovenent of their own herds and for sale to other 
breeders. 

To supply winter food for their herds it was necessary to keep 
a large part of their estates under cultivation and the extent of their 
business required the nost up to date Methods in agriculture and breeding 
practiced at that tiae, to insure success. 

For reasons unnecesary to mention, I left school - Springfield 
Ohio, New Brighton Pa. and last Mia 鼷 i University at Oxford Ohio. - at the 
age of eighteen and joined ny father in the nanagenent of bis business* 
My elder brother, Janes, having chosen civil engineering as his profession 
for which he proved himself eminently fitted. For twenty five years he 
filled the post of Chief Engineer of the A'T, & S.F. Railway systea. 
And at the tine of death - 1909 - was consulting engineer to that 
great railway system, 

Froffl 1866 until 1873 ny occupation was stock farming in all its 
branches. For soMe years I was with my father, for two years with ny uncle 
Halter whose estate was devoted to the rearing of "Short Horns* and race 
horses. He had $100,000 invested in the latter and his stable Mas well 
represented and well known at all the principal race meetings throughout 



-2- 



the nest as well as at sow of tiie big Meetings in the east. 

Frod 1871 I was aostly ragaged in the live stock business on ay 
own account and in partnership with ay cousin. Allen H. Thuraan of Colunbus, 
son of Senator A.G. Thuraan, one of the «ost proainent aen in the United 
States at that tiae and for aany years after. I loved the business for 
which I was well equipped and the independrat outdoor life that ms a 
part of it. At that tiae coitral Ohio was a paradise for the sportsaan. 
The fields were alive mith quail and the wood- lands with wild turkeys, 
ruffed grouse and other gaae. As ay brother, self and aany cousins were 
brought up fro« childhood to consider shooting and fishing the only 
recreations worthy of a boy's spare tiMe. I naturally spent the greater 
part of ay leisure in the fields and forests with dog and gun. As the 
greater part of the land was still in virgin blue grass and the enclosed 
pastures were very large, often 1,000 acres or aore in extent, it ras easy to 
■ake one's way on a trained horse for ten or wore 蘭 iles in alaost any 
direction without Much regard for public highHays. 

In My father's and uncle's faailies there were Bore than twenty 
young people who, together with the old folks, fomed quite a social colony 
of their own. And as Many relatives fron far and near ca«e as visitors 
during the soMier and autum Months, "Dun Plains", as our neighborhood was 
called, mas the scene of alaost daily or nightly festivities: Dinners, 
dancing and riding parties. Even the cold nights of winter were Berry with 
the jingle of sleigh bells and jolly gatherings around the great log fires 
at one or the other of our hoaes. My father and his brothers and sisters 
were born and grew up on my grandfather's estate near Lexington, Kentucky. 
My Mother cane fro* Norfolk, Virginia. We looked on life and lived it in 
a different way froa the faailies of neighboring land owners and, although 
the hospitality of our hoaes was free to all and bed and board gladly 



-3- 



given to the stranger, our intercourse with then was United to what 
kindly feeling and courtesy deManded. Our ways in business Matters Mere 
also different. While keen traders in big things He left the snail trading 
of the fam to our tenants. For instance, should a neighbor want ten 
bushels of seed corn or wheat or oats, he t«as told to go to the crib or 
bin and help himself. Should he want a young boar or ran he Mas told to 
select the one he most fancied. When payment was offered, he was invited 
in to sanpie our Bourbon and the clink of glasses squared the account. 
When twice a day the calves had all the ailk they could hold, the cows, to 
the number of thirty or forty had to be 黼 ilked. After the require»ents of 
the household was supplied, the reiiainder of the 觀 ilk was free to any one 
who night want it and what renained. if any, was given to the pigs to swilK 

The waste resulting fron such a lordly way of faming was very 
great and as the country grew in population the thrifty Methods of the 
small farmer, mostly tenants of the large land owners > could only result 
in the enrichnent of the fomer at the expense of the latter. Still the 
rapid increase in the value of land, the superior knowledge of my father 
and his brothers and their better equipnent for fan work enabled thea to 
hold their own until the great depression in all business enterprises 
which was first felt, if I reMevber correctly in 1871 crippled all who 
had money invested in business enterprises. 

He all had borrowed money invested, well secured by our lands, but as the 
depression continued, were doing business for years on falling Markets. The 
tenant went into his hole and lived on what he raised, used parched rye 
for coffee and sorghun molasses or naple sugar for sweets. Having little 
noney invested in live stock he passed through the dark days with little 
loss. But with the large land owner whose capital and credit were invested 
in the live stock business the consequences were disastrous in the 
extreme. My father and his brothers cane out in much better shape than many 



others but were burdened with Mortgages on their land that to say the 
least were very inconvenient to carry. As for ayself I had been doing 
business on My account for two years when the cyclone struck us and by 
good luck as well as by hard work, had Managed to accumilate a very 
considerable sun on the right side of ny account. But it was all, with 
boironed capital invested, in cattle and in the spring of 1873 lAen I had 
sold the last hoof, I found myself with but a few hundred dollars that I 
could call ny own. 

HOW I HENT TO JAPAN. 
In 1871 the Kaitakushi (Colonization DepartMnt of Hokkaido) 
was organized by the Japanese govemMent. Its object was the developnent 
of Hokkaido, the big northerly island of the Eapire. Its 髑 ineral resources, 
its agriculture* its fisheries, forests, etc. with the end in view oi indu- 
cing settlers fron the Mainland to go there. While at that tiite there were 
tornis and villages around the entire coast of the island and Hakodate was 
an important port and coMercial city of the Enpire, the interior was 
known only to the Ainu or pri 麵 itive settlers. There were no roads or other 
means of coMiunication with the interior and the dense growth of scrub 
bamboo that covered the highlands rendered progress on horse back or even 
on foot difficult. It is true there are sone rivers, particularly the 
I shikari and Tokachi and, in a less degree, some others which are naviga- 
ble for Many Miles inland for s«all boats. But there was no inducenent for 
settlers to utilize this means of penetrating the interior and making 
hones there. The fisheries were the only profitable enterprise that 
Hokkaido offered at that time. Thousands of nen fron northern Japan proper 
spent the season at the nany fishery stations on the Hokkaido coast and 
returned to their hones when cold weather set in. 



-5- 



In addition to the development of the natural wealth of Hokkaido 
for the use of their increasing southern population, the govem»ent had in 
view the defence of the island fron possible seizure and occupation by 
Japan* s northern neighbor (Russia) already well established near by and 
whose ambition was to secure ice free ports as outlets for trade and for 
military purposes. 

In view of the conditions briefly stated the government establi- 
shed the Kaitakushi to continue for ten years froM the beginning of 1872. 
General Kuroda Kiyotaka was appointed governor with almost suprene control 
in all natters pertaining [to] the new departnent. A liberal sun was set 
apart by the government to carry out the work in view, which was paia in yearly 
installments into the Kaitakushi treasury. The Kaitakushi was not accoun- 
table for the expenditure of this sun to the central government. 

Early in 1872 General Kuroda, acconpanied by a considerable party 
visited Washington and consulted General Grant, then president, in regard to 
securing the services of a staff of experts to assist in the Hokkaido 
development work. Two were recommended by General Grant hinself and, of 
course, were engaged. One of these was Gen, Horace Capron, who at the time 
of his selection was U.S, Coomissioner of Agriculture at Washington, The 
other presidential selection was Captain Nasson U.S.A. General Capron was se- 
lected to fill the post of general Adviser to the Kaitakushi, Captain Hasson 
to be chief of the trigonoaetrical survey to be nade of the island. He was 
afterwards superseded by Lieut* Murray S. Day U.S.N, The other nembers of 
the staff were selected on the reconHendation of well known authorities 
in their various lines* They were Dr, Antisell, physician and chemist, Mr. 
B.S. Lyman, geologist and mining engineer, Mr.Shelton agriculturist, Mr.L.Boeh- 
mer, horticulturist and Mr. Holt, millwright and machinist. 

In May, 1873. the Kaitakushi, by that tiwe fairly well started 
sent to the United States for quite a large number of thoroughbred Durhaui 



-6- 



or "Short Horns" cons and heifers for breeding purposes. Several bulls of 
that breed had already been imported. This order was placed in the hands 
of Mr. A.C. Capron, a coMiission Merchant of Chicago, and son of General 
Caproni to fill. 

Mr, Capron cam to "Dun Plains" to get what was wanted and I was 
delegated by 黼 y father and uncles to show bin our herds of Short Horns 
and to assist hi 画 in selecting a herd best suited to the require«ents 
of the Japanese. He got together a fine lot, about eighty, of young cows 
and heifers all of which had either had calves or were with calf. By 
arrangeaents, I agreed to deliver the lot at the Chicago Stock Yards on a 
certain date. This was done and after the conclusion of our business Mr. 
Capron and I dined together at the Stock Yard Hotel. During our dinner 
Mr. Capron infomed me he had another coMiission to fill in which 1 wight 
be able to assist hi 韉, It was to secure the services of stme one well up 
in live stock breeding and handling as well as a practical famer expe- 
rienced in up to date Methods in the United States, to take the place of 
Mr, Shelton who had resigned. After «any questions had been asked by ne 
and answered by Mr. Capnm to the best of his ability. I asked him if he 
thought I would be a suitable person to undertake the job. He at once 
replied that he had had «e in Mind for the place ever since m had first 
net, but had been afraid to make the proposition before our other business 
was concluded, as he felt alnost certain that what he had to offer was not 
good enough to induce we to give up 騮 y hone and prospects there for 
a job of unknown requirenents on the other side of the globe. I replied 
that while the salary offered was not princely it was wore than sufficient 
to cover living expenses while away and, owing to the business depression 
in the United States, which in all probability would continue for another 
year or More, I would lose nothing by leaving how at that tine and, as his 
proposition offered an excellent opportunity to see Japan I was prepared 
to accept it for one year provided a first class return to America was 



-7- 



included in My contract. This he said was provided for in his instructions 
which he showed ne. He then and there nade a neno of contract which both 
of us signed. I further volunteered to assist bin in the shipnent of his 
live stock to San Francisco and to take charge of at least a part of th<em 
across the Pacific. 

Our agreement was concluded on a Friday evening in Hay. I wired 
hone that evening "am leaving for Japan Ilcmday morning will be hone 
tomorrow pack ny trunk" . I reached hone Saturday morning and, of course, 
found my father. Bother, brothers and sisters in considerable co«Motion. 
However, I persuaded them to look upon ny going to Japan as I then consi- 
dered it myself, vore of a lark than as a pemanent change. Saturday and 
Sunday I took leave of ny uncles, aunts and cousins, all of tthon looked 
upon ny expedition rather as a joke than as a business enterprise. They 
bid me a laughing good bye with nany good wishes for a safe crossing of 
the Pacific which was not looked upon in those days as the safe Matter of 
course that it is now. On Monday I took leave of all at hone and did not 
see them again for ten years. 

EN ROUTE FOR JAPAN. 

On Tuesday I joined Mr. Capron who infomed m that twenty wore 
cows and one hundred South Down sheep, ordered from Canada, had arrived and 
all arrangeiients to ship our live stock the next day were completed. A 
train of fourteen cars was required for this purpose. The young nan who 
brought the Canadian consignnent agreed to help us as far as Ogden. 

We made a good start on Nay 16th and as facilities for feeding 
were good and [sic] until we reached Onaha we had a conpara lively easy tine 
of it until we left that place. At that time Omaha was about the end of civi- 
lization going west. It was the Most aboninable 矚 ud hole that one could 
imagine. Located on the black alluvium of the Missouri River botton, the 
streets were as nature made then. They were a horror of 蘭 ud three feet deep 



-8- 



and in places, holes, into which it was death for aan or beast to stinAle. 
It had been raining for a meek or ten days before our arrival and all 
traffic in the so called city was at a standstill. The only vehicles of 
transport that I saw were wagons drawn by six or eight yoke of oxen. 
These long strings of cattle were to be seen, floundering up to their 
bellies in inid, fro« the river up to and along the principal streets 
of the town. When I next saw Onaha ten years later there was nothing 
left to recall ay first experience there. Asphalt, wood and stone replaced 
the horrid md, and streets of handsoae buildings the wooden shanties that 
were before. 

FroH Oaaha on our real troubles began. The railway yards into 
which live stock could be unloaded, fed and reloaded were few and far 
between. All the way across the plains they were, on an average, about twen- 
ty four hours run apart. As the weather was getting war*, the cattle suffe- 
red greatly, especially for want of water. In Hyoaing we ran into a wash 
out, about one fourth of a nile of track having been washed away by what 
is called in that region a "cloud burst". Here m were delayed twenty 
four hours with a train of faaishing cattle and sheep on our hands. They 
Rust have water or die. So m secured buckets fro* the engine and started 
in to water then by hand fro* the ditches along side of the track which 
fortunately were full of rain water. As the only experienced stock nan in 
the party I was unaniMusly elected to go inside and deal out the water. 
Knowing what to expect some train hands had been engaged and ar«ed with 
long stout poles to keep the beasts fro* crowding upon we. But for this 
precaution I would have been crushed to a jelly. As it was I was kicked, 
horned, bruised in numberless places and covered with filth by faaished 
beasts crowding upon me. The cattle were loose in the cars and, of course, 
all made a rush for the water. Khen the first car was finished we tackled 
the second and so on, until the twelve car loads of cattle were satisfied. 
The two cars of sheep gave little trouble. We were ten hours on the job. 



-9- 



It t«as the «ost trying physical experience that I ever mi Hith. For days 
after I was so stiff that it mas painful to w>ve at all, but tbe care of 
the cattle required constant attention and there was no one to take ay pla- 
ce. He were three days froa Oiicago to Oaaha and sixteen days frai (kaha 
to San Francisco, nineteen days in all. 

The unloading of tbe stock pens usually occured at night and 
often it was long after Midnight before feeding and watering was finished 
and we could seek a few hours rest at the station hotel if there happened 
to be one at that particular place. If not at so«e low-dom saloon 
restaurant and gambling place, run for the acco— odation of cow 
boys and less respec^Ie residents of the plains. At one such place, if 
I reMaiber correctly, Cheyenne, m were forced to retreat backwards to the 
outlet Kith the business ends of our revolvers covering a drunken lot of 
scoundrels who insisted upon our aaking a night of it with thea. They were 
men who understood the persuasive influence of a 44 cal. Navy and recog- 
nized that we were worked up to the point of shooting up the entire 
premises if further Rolested. This occurred at about two a.n. When we 
got out of the den we made for the station hotel about 300 yards distant, 
which had been closed for hours. Being angry, hungry and aiserable 
generally m kicked the door until the night watctwan finally let us in 
after much explanation and bad language had passed through the door. On 
his refusal to get us any thing to eat me told hi 矚 he could either take 
a $5 bill for doing so or we would take him with us, look up the pantry 
and help ourselves for nothing. He concluded that the $5 bill was the 
best policy, nade us hot coffee and gave us a spread of cold meats , bread 
and butter that appealed to ne as one of the finest spreads of good things 
I had ever encountered. 

While on the way the train aien had, of course, no use for their 
sleeping bunks in the caboose of the train and kindly peniitted us the 
use of then. The run of each crew was from one stock yard to the next 



-10- 



and when our cars were placed at the unloading chutes, the engine, caboose 
and crew left, to be replaced by a new crew next aorning. 

At that ti»e the plains were for hundreds of 翻 iles at a stretch 
alHost entirely [un] inhabited. Occasionally the buildings and corral Is of a 
cattle ranch would be seen, also herds of cattle and occasionally a few 
buffalo Migrating northwards. Beyond this only herds of antelope 
and nunberless jack rabbits. 

At Ogden our Canadian friend left us. He had proved to be a good 
felloM and valuable assistant and help through ail of our troubles. Fro« 
there on, although short handed we got alon^ with little trouble as the 
railway facilities for handling live stock en route were such better than 
before. 

At San Francisco we turned our charge over to the Japanese 
Consular authorities who had nade arrangeaents for their keep and 
shipment across the Pacific, 

We had got through without the loss of a single head, in fact 
the herd was added to by the birth of a calf en route which grew up to 
be a fine cow in Japan. But it was more by good fortune than good Manage- 
ment that we succeeded so well. Before leaving Chicago I told Mr. Capron 
that each com and heifer should have a place to itself in the cars where 
they could, if necessary, be fed and watered without difficulty. I pointed 
out that they were too valuable to be handled as beef cattle were handled. 
But all arrangenents for the shipment had been made ana it was thought too 
late by Mr. Capron to change. As I was only a volunteer I had nothing 
further to say, but had I known of the troubles ahead of us, I would not 
have undertaken the job for an extra year's salary. 

At Frisco I met ay cousin and old school nate, Alfred Dun, whooi 
I found to be thoroughly conpetent in shotting me the town, I also met Mr. 
Ralston, president of the Bank of California and the great financial Magna- 



-li- 



te of the West at that tine. I had a letter of introduction to hia from 
My uncle. Senator Thunan of Ohio. 

Mr. Yanagiya, a well knowi neiiber of the Tokio Club today was at 
that tine Japanese Consul at San Francisco. He secured one of the best 
rooms obtainable at the Grand Hotel for ny accomodation, of course on 
account of the Japanese GovernHent and left instructions to charge extras 
of every description to the sane account. 

I arrived at San Francisco June 4th and remained there until 
June 17th. Being in such good hands I had a delightful time of it for 
nearly two weeks* All the aore enjoyable after the nineteen days of the 
worst kind of roughing it just before. 

On June 17th, one half of the cattle and all of the sheep were 
shipped on board the P.M. side wheel steamer "Great Republic* of about 
5,000 tons burden* I was furnished transportation on the sane streamer 
and again volunteered to see that the live stock was properly looked after. 
This duty required only general supervision on My part* The officers of 
the ship saw to it that my instructions in regard [to] feeding etc. were 
carried out* 

The Great Republic was one of the most comfortable boats I have 
ever traveled in. Her paddles gave her great bean and prevented rolling. 
Captain Howard, her commander, took the direct course from Frisco to Yoko- 
hama, passing within sight of the Mid Way Islands. We were favored with 
charming weather and smooth sea all the way, arriving at Yokohama July 
9th in the quick tine for those days, of twenty two days from San Francisco. 

The "Great Republic" and her sister ship "Japan* and the "Ane- 
rica* composed the trans-Pacific liners of the P.M. co. at that time. 
Shortly after my arrival the "America* was burnt to the waters edge 
in Yokohaaa harbor with the loss, in life of six or eight hundred Chinese 
coolies returning hone from California. The "Japan" was also lost by fire 



-12- 



a few years later at Shanghai, if I reaeaber right. In the spring of 
1884 I saw the bones of the 'Great Republic' at the Bouth of the Colinbia 
river where she was wrecked in trying to get in. 

WHAT I FOUND IN JAPAN 
I was Met at YokohaM by Kaitakushi officials who had arranged 
for the unloading of the live stock. Within a few hours of landing I was 
accoapanied to Tokio by way of the railway opened a few Months before. 
I was taken directly to the head office of the Kaitakushi, in Shiba 
park where I was very kindly received by General Kuroda and other high 
officials of the departaent. After confining Ry provisional contract and 
receiving My verbal report in regard to the live stock, I Has driven 
by Mr. Dzushio, afterwards governor of Hokkaido under General Kuroda, to 
the quarters that had been prepared for ae and which I occupied until 
two years later. I took up ny permanent residence at Sapporo Hokkaido. I 
found 画 y quarters very coaf or table indeed, consisting of a fra«e house of 
four good sized rooms, a kitchen, servant quarters, bath roo«, etc. I found a 
cook and boy waiting to receive Re and an aMple store of edibles and 
drinkables ready for use. 

Up to this tine I had not seen one of my Aaerican colleagues but 
soon after I had settled down Mr. Louis Boehner, the horticulturist cane 
to see Me and from that tiae friendship was for»ed between us that 
lasted until his death uny years afterwards. Boelaer had arrived the 
year before and was fairly well acquainted with the situation. The infor- 
Mation and advice he gave me was of great iwediate service to we. 

To forward the Hokkaido enterprise the Kaitakushi, by the advice 
of General Capron established a large and very expensive intenwdiate 
station at Tokio, consisting of an experinental fain with barns and 
corrals for the reception of live stock. Also horticultural grounds of 
150 acres in extent for the growing and distribution of all kinds of 



-13- 



foreign fruits and vegetables together with green houses for tropical 
flowers. The preaises included the land now occupied by the Red Cross 
hospital and south to the tranway. Froii the present Red Cross preaises it 
extended north west, including the Presbyterian school and Bission grounds 
of today and, from then, across the nain Aoyana road for a distance of half a 
Mile or More. 

From the horticulture department over two millions of foreign 
fruit trees and vines were distributed throughout the ain island (sic) of 
Japan and it is from this source that the foreign fruit we get today cones. 

The expense of keeping up such an enoraous establislwent Has 
very great and, owing to difference in clinate, soil and almost all other 
conditions, it was practically of no value in omnection with the coloniza- 
tion and dvelopnent of the natural resources of Hokkaido. 

Hy house was near the center of the farm of about fifty acres in 
area. Upon arrival I found a long row of expensive barns and stables, 
the plans of which were furnished by General Capron, located in about the 
most unhealthy spot that could have been found in that part of Tokio. The 
place Mas so bad and the reports of sickness aMong the cattle and horses 
already there were so convincing that I declined to be responsible if the 
aniMals brought over by me were placed there. My protest Mas so strong 
that the Japanese officials under my direction, built open sheds near where 
the main Red Cross hospital building now stands to accoiMiodate the live 
stock. Fortunately General Capron was in Hokkaido at the tine and as he 
was not referred to in the natter I had no opposition from that quarter. 

All kinds of the most expensive agricultural machinery had been 
imported. In taking stock I found threshing machines capable of threshing 
out 1,000 bushels of grain per day; self binding reapers that could cut 
twenty acres of grain per day; Mowing machines, gang plows; corn planters and 
innumerable smaller machines and implenients, the greater part of which were 



-14- 



as useful in Japan as in [sic] a fifth wheel Nould be to a magon. 

There were about 70 students at the fani and an office full of 
officials, with only three or four of wboii I had anything to do. I arranged 
to give lectures to the students. An hour or so every ■orning and an 
equal tiMe in instruction in the field and in the care of live stock. 
It was right here that I thanked ay stars for early training at ho«e 
where the detail of fan work and care of doiiestic animls had been 
drilled into ae froM childhood. 

A year spent in the Manageaent of a racing stable of thorough 
breds and trotters had finished ay education as a horseman. On reaching 
nan's estate I prided Ryself on being able to lead the aen. always excep- 
ting our Irish ditchers, in any branch of fan work and in the nanageient 
of live stock. I could swing a scythe or ax with the best and in handling 
all kinds of agricultural Machinery Has the best Man on the place. In 
teaching the students and in practical infornation to the agricultural 
branch of the Kaitakushi, this early training was invaluable and enabled m 
to answer correctly, and alMOst without thought, in a thousand details, 
alMOst any one of which would have stu 觀 ped the college-bred, book- learned 
expert. It was for this reason that Mr. Shelton did not succeed. He was, 
doubtless, learned in agricultural cheaistry, in botany, in plant life, in all 
that books can teach in higher agriculture, but had no practical knowledge 
whatever. At ho«e I had also taken up the study of veterinary surgery and 
was fairly well up in aniaal anatoay. This also stood ne in good stead, as at 
Uiat tiae there was not a graduated veterinary surgeon in Japan. In fact 
in addition to the higher requirenents necessary for an expert adviser 
in agriculture and live stodc breeding, I found it also necessary to 
be a —Jack of all trades* . 

Within a month or so I had got fairly started in my work. My 
relations with the officials of the department, high and low. were excel lent [.] 
I was also on the best terns with My students. I had gained their confiden- 



-15- 



ce and respect. 

THE IMPERIAL VISIT 

Early in Septeaber I was notified that His Imperial Majesty, 
the Emperor, would visit the farm within a week or ten days and that we 
must arrange for His reception. To have our live stock ready for his 
inspection, as far as possible show hin our Anerican lobor saving Machinery 
and iaplements in actual use. As I ms the only nan on the place that 
could handle a team of horse decently I felt that I had a pretty large 
order on hand but deteniined to Make a creditable showing if possible to 
do so. We had a few acres of wheat, barley and rye grass still standing 
and an anple extent of fallow land for showing the working of drills, corn 
planters, etc. Fortunately we had a splendid team of American horse which 
were all that were required for carrying out this part of the show. The 
running of the great threshing machine was the most difficult part of the 
job but we got together eight Japanese stallions to run the horse power 
and after days of kicking, biting and squealing got them to working 
well together. Of course all Machinery had to be well cleaned, oiled and 
tested beforehand. Every machine was in place for instant work when 
the great day came. Upon inquiry I was infomed that I Must appear in full 
evening dress, high hat, white necktie and gloves. 

The Emperor came in an imported court carriage and attended 
by Prince Sanjo, Prime Minister, the great general Saigo, Okubo, Kuroda, 
Okuna and «any others whoa, of course, I did not recognize at that tine- 
After inspecting the live stock the Emperor was driven to where I was 
seated on a reaping machine. I started at once and after reaping a few 
rounds of barley and wheat changed ny tea, to a wowing machine and cut a 
few swaths of rye grass* then changed again to a big wheat drill and then 
to a corn planter. The Emperor was then driven to the thresher and the 
power started with me on the feeding platfora. Feeding a big thresher 
requires much skill and practice and is about the dirtiest work 



-16- 



iaaginable. I believe I aa the only aan living who has undertaken the job 
in dress suit. Everything went off well and I was afterwards inforaed that 
His Majesty was well pleased with the exhibition. 

Froa the thresher He was driven to a reception house in a beau- 
tiful garden on the fan. On his departure I aade quick tiwe to ay own 
quarters, about the dirtiest individual ever seen in evening clothes and 
high hat. After a bath I got into a yukata and long ba 髑 boo chair and, with 
the assistance of a bottle of beer and cigar, was beginning to feel cwifor- 
table again when in rushed my interpreter with the inforution that I was 
wanted at once at the reception house to be presented to the Enperor. 
Fortunately 霞 y boy had already been at work on Ry dress clothes and hat 
so it required only a few «oaents to get the beastly things on again and 
report to General Kuroda who was waiting for Me. He presented ae to one 
of the lost distinguished looking Hen I had ever seen, a nan that would 
attract attention no utter where he night be. He was General Saigo after- 
wards known as the Great Saigo. The leader of the Satsuaa rebellion which 
was suppressed after desperate fighting in 1887 when, rather than surrender, 
Saigo coMitted harakiri. I was taken by General Saigo into the roo« where 
the Emperor was seated in a large chair. I made three bows as instructed 
and backed out. At that tine such salutations were not acknowledged in any 
way by the Enperor. As I stood before hi, for a mmeat I noticed that 
Prince San jo who Has standing near, whispered to hi 議. The Eaperor glanced 
at Sanjo for an instant and nodded slightly. Shortly after this the 
EMperor left the grounds. At this ti«e the Eaperor was twenty three years 
of age, rather tall for a Japanese and very slender. It was ay good fortune 
to Meet hi' Many tines in after years when he had Mtured in physique and 
the nanner of his reception had changed. 



-17- 

FIRST IMPRESSIONS. 



At this tine I had been three aonths in Japan. It was, of course 
the time of first impressions. What were they? After 47 years of alnost 
continuous residence here they seen noM to have been clouded and vague. 
Conditions have changed so gradually, yet conpletely, that what I thought 
the country and people then has but little connection with present 
convictions. I was chained with the courtesy and kindness of the two 
sworded gentlenen who were dally My companions, who seeded always pleased 
to entertain me with the evident desire to lessen the loneliness of the 
stranger so far from his hone. Their nanners were as they are now, Most 
charming, but at that tine, it seems to ne, there was inore frankness and 
real friendly feeling displayed than is net with today. It is true there 
were a class of fanatics in bitter opposition to the change in govemaent 
who were always ready* when opportunity off erred, to try their swords on 
the barbarians whom they were convinced were the real cause of the change 
that had taken place and who, they believed, intended to overrun and ultiia- 
tely conquer their country and enslave its people. They could not keep 
step with the progressive men of the tine who realized that old Japan was 
a thing of the past and that they must go forward with, and be a part of 
the outside world or cease to exist as an independent nation. Tine has 
proved that the far sighted, progressive nen who ruled Japan at that day 
were right and the reactionaries were wrong. But conditions then gave 
color to the widespread belief that the foreigner had evil designs upon 
their country and their only safety lay in casting them out and closing 
Japan as it was before to the rest of the world. When it is reaienbered 
that 1,500 British and 1,0(X) French soldiers then stationed at Yokohaaa 
dominated the land from a military point of view, that the new government 
of Japan had no force to meet then, should the crisis arise and that the 
warships of the foreigner had, but recently, demonstrated their over 



-18- 



whel 韉 ing power at Shi«onoseki and Kagoshiaa, it is not surprising that fear 
for the future possessed the souls of a proud, hoMe loving people ainost 
entirely ignorant of conditions abroad and of the real designs of foreign 
nations. It is indeed surprising that there were not more frequent out- 
breaks and More widespread revolts. The apparent ease with which the great 
leaders held the country in hand can be attributed, in the first place, only 
to the love and universal veneration in which the Eneror Mas held and 
the willingness of high and low to do his bidding and, secondly to the 
centuries of discipline that had taught the loasses to unquestionly [sic] obey 
the coMiands of their superiors. 

The social divisions of the people of Japan prior to the resto- 
ration are faniliar to all but the harvonious working of that social 
state can only be appreciated by those who witnessed it. The denocrat of 
today is apt to consider it as an evidence of the tyrannical rule of a 
feudal state. As a natter of fact there was no tyranny in connection 
with it. Each aan had his place fixed by centuries of usage and with 
each place there were inviolable rights which were treasured by the coolie 
as well as by the noblenan. The coolie felt no degradation in kneeling 
when the noblenan passed. He felt he was only rendering an homage that 
was undoubtedly due to his superior. He felt no degradation m his 
lowly state, he was born in it as his forefathers had been for many genera- 
tions before. He was not persecuted. The law of the land protected hi 瞓 
in his rights. His hours of labor were less than now and his holidays 
•uch aore frequent. Every sixth day was a holiday and the nuiiber of festi- 
vals far nore frequent than at present. He was well fed and housed as 
well as he is today. As I remenber it, the life of the people then was 
much more joyous than now. They were content with their lot. Happy in 
freedoB froM care and ignorant of a better life. It is true there was 
another side to the picture. The visitations of pestilence and fa 矚 ine were 



-19- 



frequent and terrible. Cholera, snail pox and other scourges ravaged the 
land unchecked and took their toll in Millions. Faaine Mas always local 
and due to inadequate means of transporting supplies fron places of 
abundance to places where there Mas want. These visitations were, how- 
ever, accepted stoically by the people as beyond the power of nan to control. 
In the same way they regarded the terrible conflagrations that periodical- 
ly swept from one end to the other of their towns and cities. I visited 
several of the great fires of Tokio. In front of the advancing f lanes the 
streets would be filled with frenzied people fleeing with children, 
cats and other household effects in their ams. On either side of the 
blackened pathway of the fire would be seen groups of citizens seated 
in some neighbor's house drinking sake and laughingly congratulating 
their friend on his escape, this time, and expressing their sorrow for 
the less fortunate ones in bunpers of wine. 

Behind the flames in the still smoking ruins would be seen 
hundreds of had been householders inspecting their fire- proof godowns 
in which their most valuable effects were stored, and already marking out 
sites for another natch wood dwelling or shop. It was only in front of the 
terror that excitement was Manifest. On the other side, if not laughing good 
humor, no noisy lanentatioi^were to be heard* This resignation of the 
Japanese under misfortune I was at first disposed to attribute to callous- 
ness but when I got to know then better I no longer did so. I believe it 
to be the result of centuries of training during which they have been 
taught to suppress their emotions. Those under affliction who have expe- 
rienced the tender solicitude of Japanese friends can never doubt the 
kindness of heart that prompts the ready help and sympathy so freely 
given. In the first shock of surprise such as co«es with fire or earth- 
quake, huiRan nature asserts itself with the Japanese as with all others. It 
is later that the teaching of self suppression gains such 



-20- 



surprising control over Manifestations of personal eMotion. I believe the 
Japanese to be, naturally an extranely emotional people. It is Uie spirit 
of Bushido that has suppressed this tendency as inconsist^t with their 
honor as mea and the fulfilling of their duty to their sovereign and 
country. The old saaurai and the soldier of today were and are always 
ready to take their om lives rather than submit to what they conceive to 
be derogatory to their duty or honor without exhibiting a seablance of 
regret or repugnance* If one could read the hearts of these sen 
what a story of suffering 睡 ight be revealed! 

In old Japan the people were efficient in all their si 鴯 pie life 
required. Objects of art and industry that have cone down to us are 
convincing evidence of this. But that they were i 矚 provident in regard to 
the future is also apparent. Perhaps being satisfied with what their sim- 
ple daily life required wide thea careless of what becaae of the surplus. 
But in the new- life of today they are both improvident and inefficient. 
Optimistic by nature they will gamble away not only their own patrimony 
by [sic] but that of their dearest friend in the absolute belief of having 
found the easy my to wealth. The lower classes are inclined to be inveter- 
ate gsnblers. Hence the stringent laws in regard to gaabling that the author- 
ities, rightly, so reaorselessly enforce in regard to the lower classes. 

In regard to inefficiency, who has not observed a lot of road 
menders at their work? The filling of a hole with sli»e fro« the gutter 
nearest by, the sprinkling a few shovels of gravel on the top, the smoothing 
over till it is a thing of beauty, the complacency with i*ich they view the 
completed work as they depart for another beastly hole, that will presently 
look pretty, and their absolute regardlessness of the certainty of the next 
passing autoHobile scattering the covering gravel and the filthy muck 
below to the four corners of the conpass. What old resident has not da«ned 
the artist that sold him a beautiful chair that without provocation left 
hin on the floor with a Mass of beautiful sticks about hi 讓. Or the doors 



-21- 



of his house, so substantial in appearance last August, that in the dry cold 
Months of January and February afforded Bore ventilation than his friend 
the fresh air fiend would approve of. In aore iBportant Batters I need 
only naiie the postal systea, the telegraph, telephones and traas to eaphasi- 
ze this all pervading inefficiency that handicaps Japan today. 

Japan is still young in the ways of the West and her workaen 
unskilled in the requirements of the new life she has entered. There is 
hope that time and that stern Ben tor, coMpetition, will renedy the defects so 
apparent today. As a witness of the progress this wonderful people have 
made in almost half a century I have lived with then I hope and believe 
they will make good in the end. 

EARTHQUAKES and FIRES. 
Before returning to the story of ay own reminiscences I will 
venture a word of warning to the good citizens of Tokio. For aore than 
twenty five years Prof. John Milne R S, the eminent authority on seisaology 
was a resident of Tokio and during the greater part of that tine was ay 
most intimate friend and constant companion. It is on the authority of 
what I learned fron bin that I now venture to speak. Milne Made the study 
of the earthquakes of Japan his speciality. He had a coaplete chronologi- 
cal record of the destructive earthquakes that had occurred during the 
past seven centuries. As far back as he could find reliable records 
the number that had occurred in different parts of Japan was very large 
and in the district now occupied by the city of Tokio not one century of 
the seven had passed without one, two or three destructive ones occurring. 
Hundreds of severer shocks approaching the destructive, but not classified 
as such, Here recorded. In 1892 and 1895, if I re«e«ber correctly, I expe- 
rienced two of the severe ones. The first was the tail end of the great 



-22- 



Gifu earthquake, the second was of local origin. I Has at the U.S« Lotion 
when it occurred and ran upstairs to the rescue of My sister's two 
children who were staying with ae at the tine* Hhen I reached the upper 
floor the novenent was so great that I had difficulty in keeping 漏 y feet. 
The house and chimeys were swaying about in an alaraing Manner and kept 
it up for 50«e tine after the shock itself had ceased. The children were 
frightened, of course, but seemed to enjoy the new experience when I assured 
then it was all right. Buildings on the low lands of Tokio suffered wosU 
Tsukiji had the appearance of having been boabarded. There was not a chim- 
ney top left in the settlenent and »any brick buildings were badly cracked. 
One of the Mission school buildings was almost destroyed* Bishop IkKiM 
who was there at the iim had a narroH escape. As he Has leaving one of 
the mission buildings a falling brick struck hin fairly on the head; 
fortunately he had on a heavy sun helaet at the tine, which probably, saved 
his life. In other parts of the city [in]any houses were damaged or even 
destroyed. At the Geraan Legation the nain building and secretary's house 
were so badly shattered that they had to be torn down and re- built. 

At one of the barracks in the city a building col lapsed and 
some soldiers were killed and many injured. The loss of life in Tokio was 
about forty. This was classed as a severe but not as a destructive shock. 
The Gifu earthquake was a very destructive one at the centre of the dis- 
turbance. Fortunately with the exception of Gifu there were no large 
centre of population in the locality where it was nost severe, Nagoya on 
the outskirts of that locality suffered severely in loss of life and 
buildings, mostly factories. The loss of life in the entire region was about 
13,000. The nunber of na[i]i«ed and injured was much greater. Professor Milne 
visited the region of greater diturbances as soon as he could get there. 
In fact the after shocks had not entirely ceased on his arrival. It is 



-23- 



nostly a flat faming district with a few small towns and villages scatte- 
red through it. But few houses were left standing. The plain was dotted 
over with the thatched roofs of farms that had collapsed killing all who 
had failed to get out in tiwe. The ground was Marked by fissures, especial- 
ly embankments were nmch broken. In one place there was a subsidence of 
four or five feet that cut across a highway foning a jump off in the road 
of the sane height. The railway lines were twisted in a rewarkable manner; 
looking along a line of rails the lines had a snake like appearance. A long 
railway bridge was let down. The Hovenent of the ground under the rigid 
bridge structure cru 顏 bled the Masonry of the supporting piers. In this 
earthquake the novenent of the ground at Tokio was over two inches but was 
very slow and but little danage was done. Mr* Kildoyle an Anerican resident 
of Yokohama was stopping at a Japanese inn at Gifu when the earthquake 
occurred. It was early in the Morning, Kildoyle ms still asleep. He was 
awakened by a terrible commotion, the first thing he noticed was the paper 
and outside doors of the house flying out of their grooves in all direc- 
tions. He tried to stand up but was thrown down. He then managed to roll 
and crawl out of the house into the street where he again attenpted to 
get on his feet but failed. He said the shocks cane in quick succession 
making hi 躍 feel sea-sick. Houses were falling into the street and fire 
broke out in many places. The first and worst disturbance lasted for a few 
minutes but was followed by others, of less force, at short intervals which 
gradually increased in length and the shocks in the sane degree decreased 
in force. Professor Milne estinated that the greatest horizontal «ove»ent 
at Gifu must have been more than one foot and the vertical novenent five 
or six inches. 

The last great earthquake that visited Tokio was in 1853 or 
1854. There are doubtless many people still living who experienced its 



-24- 



terrors. The records of it state that 100,000 people perished, aore by fire 
that broke out in all directions than froa the earthquake itself » The 
greater part of the city was destroyed. It is iiqmsible to say if it was as 
violent as the Gifu earthquake or not, but it is knowi to have been very 
violent and destructive. Earlier in the century 1810 or 1812 Tokio expe- 
rienced a si 黼 ilar disaster. With these records before one can any reasona- 
ble aan believe that these terrible visitors will not cone again? It was 
Professor Milne's belief that their recurrence was not only probable but 
absolutely certain sooner or later. Until about 1900 the architecture of 
the city conforaed to the seisnic additions as closely as prudence requi- 
red. Since then steel has been largely used to strengthen large buildings 
and justify More lofty structures. Year by year the t^dency to add More 
floors to buildings has increased. Not only where steel is used to streng- 
then but also in brick and concrete structures where steel is not used 
at all. It would see» that the test the future will surely apply to every 
edifice in Tokio has been forgotten or ignored. Undoubtedly the rapid 
advancing cost of building ground is the principal reason for higher and 
higher builidngs, and the builder probably argues that the increased reve- 
nue froH untaxed space above justifies the risk of sudden destruction 
that nay not occur during his life time or, at least, until the rents fro« 
his increased floor roon have covered his investment. That this kind of 
ganbling can be approved fro« a business point of view I very much doubt. 
That it cannot be approved froM an ethical point of view I have no doubt 
whatever. It seens to ne it is high tiae for the city authorities 
to take a hand in the game and require that every plan of building be sub- 



-25- 



nitted for approval to a competent board of engineers who should be fully 
authorized and required to supervise constructions. I could point out fine 
looking buildings, now occupied in Tokio today that have been constructed 
with entire disregard of what ordinary prudence calls for and, doubtless 
there are hundreds of others completed or now being built that should be 
condemed. Doubtless the better class of new structures that are supported 
by frames of steel of enomous strength would easily withstand the shock 
of even a very severe earthquake. But would any one of then endure the 
repetition of the Gifu earthquake? 

After the Emperor's visit ny life at the farm passed easily and 
pleasantly. One day so nuch like the preceeding that I reneiiber but little 
of special interest. We had a splendid trotting stallion in our stables 
that I made it ny business to exercise daily. Every evening I would have 
"Don" harnessed to a light trotting sulky and drive for miles through the 
streets of Tokio, In this way I got to know my way about as far as Ueno 
and Asakusa. That part of the city was as faniliar to we then as it is 
today. The soft streets of the city were then but little used by heavy 
vehicles, kurumas and pedestrians were about all they had to withstand. 
Especially in the old Dai 鶴 yo quarters the roads were as smooth as a floor 
and delightful to drive over. The business quarter was almost entirely 
between Nihonbashi and Kyobashi on one side and the Su«idagawa on the 
other. In this district where the streets are narrow and then as now, 
always crowded with people and heavy wooden wheeled hand carts required 
for the traffic, I never ventured with "Don* and sulky. "Don* was a 
remarkable horse, as bold as a lion and gentle as a la 園 b* i got to love hin 
as only a horseman can understand. At times we would w^t processions 
that to both of us seemed outlandish; great dashing followed by thousands 
of yelling people with drums, flutes, children and it seemed with every other 
imaginable beastly thing that could Make a noise. "Don* would stop, stare 



-26- 



with head up and ears pricked for a Moaent and then look back at we for 
instructions. My "steady old boy' was always sufficient for him; with a snort 
of conteapt he i«ould stand perfectly still until the beastly thing, as he 
doubtless thought it, passed by. He always seeaed to feel perfectly sure 
that I would never take him to iaproper places. Afterwards he ms in the 
stud at Niicapu, Hokkaido for years and as his progeny was patriarchal » there 
is doubtless mich of his blood in Japan today. 

Just forty-six years ago this evening (this is New Year's eve) 
1919, I was comfortably fixed in an easy chair at hone with a book when my 
boy cane and told me the great Zojyoji tevie at Shiba was burning and 
that the fam fire brigade was about to start for the scene of conflagra- 
tion. I hustled into my overcoat and boots and went with them. The old 
temple was «uch larger and higher than the structure that mas aftermards 
built to replace it and which in turn was destroyed by fire ten or twelve 
years ago. The night was perfectly still, snowing a little. When we got 
there the large structure was a mass of fire. The roof of the teaple was 
of copper and gave a wonderfully beautiful color to the f lanes that soared 
up to a great height. The great bell, still in the sa«e place as then, 
boomed out its lanent from the beginning. The belfry finally took fire 
and as the bell becane heated its tone becane lower and lower until it 
seeined an angry roar instead of the solenn but comforting boon of prospe- 
rous days. The priests who swung the great log that tolled it did not 
leave their post until the heat becane aore than nan could endure. Shortly 
after they left [the] bell and belfry crashed down in a tower of fla«e and 
sparks. The burning of this great temple was the «ost beautiful conflagra- 
tion I have ever seen* Thirty years after I witnessed the destruciton by 
fire of the temple built in the place where the old one had stood* 
醒 LINGS WITH GENERAL CAPBON - 
Sone Honths prior to the great teaple fire I aet General 
Capron on his return fron Hokkaido. I feel reluctant to speak of the 



-27- 



General at all but as he is a part of the story I a 鷗 trying to tell I 
cannot leave hi 議 out. He was a fine dignified looking, old gentlenan and 
made the best cocktail I ever drank but was about as well fitted to fill 
the place he occupied as General Janes Wilson of New Jersey told we after H 
wards* he was to comiand a brigade in the U.S. army. He was a chaming com- 
panion but nil as an organizer or leader of men. Instead of being a help 
and support to his staff he was constantly a hindrance in their way. If one 
of us had a suggestion to Make regarding our speciality he would blandly 
refer us to the Japanese in our dapartinent. If we ventured to question 
the advisability of his suggestions, he would inti«ate that it was i 麵 perti- 
nent to question the wisdom of the acts of our chief. After naking his 
acquaintance and in answer to his inquiry regarding the extension of My 
contract I ventured to say that I had understood that I was engaged to 
assist in the work connected with the colonizatin of Hokkaido ana I 
failed to see in what way the very expensive establishments maintained at 
Tokio were of nuch value in furthering that work and, unless I was 
assured that the entire Tokio establishment would soon be transferred to 
the northern island, I would not feel disposed to remain after the expiration 
of my contract. He replied that I would find it to my interest not 
to concern nyself with the the general Hanagenent of the department. That of 
course I could not understand the advantage of having so inportant an 
undertaking so near the presence of Majesty, I admitted he was quite right 
that I could not understand the advantages he mentioned. I also took 
occasion to ask him why mutton sheep had been iiiportea instead of 
wool bearing animals and, also, why a part of the cows imported were not of 
the best breeds of Milkers instead of the entire lot being beef producers. 
I also did not fail to refer to the horribly unsanitary place selected for 
the housing of our live stock. In fact the iMMensely superior air he was 
pleased to adopt in my reception was not soothing in its effect on my 
temper. He did not seen to be altogether pleased with our interview. I 



-28- 



em sure I was not. However its after effects were satisfactory in so far 
as I Mas concerned. Thereafter the General troubled ae very little in the 
aanageaent of My part of the business. Later on in the spring I was 
approached by the Japanese authorities in regard to a renewal of my 
contract. I inforaed the« of the objections I had stated to General 
Capron. They assured ae they entirely concurred with My views and had 
already decided to nove the entire Tokio establishaent to Hokkaido as 
soon as possible. They also infoned ae that General Capron was returning 
to Anerica before the end of the year and finally, that they were prepared 
to alaost double my salary. This last ite« in their proposition natural- 
ly influenced ne greatly and, finally, I agreed to stay on for another year. 

- Friends 

My second year in Tokio was sinilar in all respects to the first 
excepting that I had Made Many friends, both Japanese and foreign. Aaongst 
thou Here the Hon. John A. Binghaii U.S. Minis ter to Japan and his secretary 
of legation, Mr. D.W. Stevens who afterwards rendered such splendid service 
to Japan in the capacity of confidential secretary to Prince I to during 
the latter' s administration of Korea. The brutal assassination of Mr. 
Stevens at San Francisco by Korean fanatics is reaenbered by aany of his 
friends living in Tokio today. The unreasoning barbarity of that cruel 
deed can never be forgiven by then. He was one of the best mends that 
poor misguided people ever had. 

One noticeable feature of Japan when I first arrived was the 
wild aniaal life that swaned every where. At Shiba and Ueno parks and 
many other places in Tokio where there was cover, it was a conaon occurren- 
ce to put up a cover of pheasants and in the suburbs they were far nore 
plentiful than chickens. Near the farm they were so plentiful that I shot 



-29- 



them for the pot only. They were too easy for sport. In the nigra tory 
season great flocks of water fowl of all kinds would cone in fron their 
feeding ground to the moats of Tokio for shelter and protection. The »oat 
in front of the British legation would be black with geese, ducks and other 
kinds of water fowl. At the farm there was an artificial Fuj isan left from 
ancient tines. It was honey combed with dens of foxes, badgers and smaller 
prowling beasts. The nightly yelp of the dog foxes was as frequently heard 
as the bark of the city dogs. I shall never forget an evening when I was 
aroused by a noise in ny dining roon. Gently opening the door I observed 
a fine dog fox on ny dining table regaling hinself with the contents of 
my butter dish. When he saw me he leisurely departed as he cane through the 
open windoM. In going he gave «e a look that spoke as plainly as words: 
"you are an impertinent fellow to interrupt a gentleiian at dinner"? [sicj 

Gentlemen had not yet taken to the fowling piece for sport and 
fire arms were forbidden to the comnon herd. Trapping with nets and other 
contrivances was permitted and by these Means the Markets were amply 
supplied with game. 

About the time of my arrival two bear cubs, male and female, were 
sent to the farm from Hokkaido. They were great pets and for some tine 
were permitted to go about almost without restraint. When they grew to 
troublesome size wooden cages that appeared to be amply strong, were provided 
for their acconunodation* The male grew prodigiously and the following spring 
was an enornous beast for a cub. One night I heard a great connotion out- 
side and through the windows saw many coolies running about with lanterns. 
I hastily ran out thinking a fire had broken out. The night was very 
dark and I could see nothing but the lanterns some distance away. Soon I 
heard a grunting snuffling sound and the next moaent the paws of a great 
stinking beast were around ne* To manifest his good will I suppose, he 
licked my face with his beastly tongue* My protests against the procedure 



-30- 



were forcible. I kicked hi 讓 in the sto«acb and tried to chock [sic] hi 矚 with 
•y hands. Finally I succeeded in getting free and Made 議 y record ti»e for 
the house. When the coolies attracted by the row caMe up Hr. Bear subnitted 
without protest to being conducted back to his cage idiich was repaired and 
strengthened until a suitable structure of iron bars was provided to take 
Its place. 

I Settle in Hokkaido. 

The next year 1875, I went to Hokkaido, spending the suMner a an 
agricultural station, at Nanai, about ten 騙 iles north of Hakodate. Here I 
«et ay fate in tiie person of the daughter of a snail official froa Tsugaru. 
After alnost endless official requirements and red tape were complied with, 
the natter was finally arranged greatly through the good offices of Mr. 
Binghan* our minister. 

I want to say right here that never for a «o»ent did I regret 
the step I had taken. Through her I became acquainted with the «ost beauti- 
ful part of Japan, her wonen of the better class. I »ay be prejudiced, but Vt 
seens to m there cannot be a »ore unselfish, self sacrificing and lovable 
creature on earth than a good Japanese Mowaiu Generations of education has 
seeaingly succeeded in establishing two classes with dissi 鶴 ilar characteris- 
tics in the sane race of people. The man is taught to believe that he is 
"it* and that the exclusive Mission of wonan is to minister to his OMifort 
and pleasure, to take proper care of his house and to bear nis children. 
While he recognizes her authority in household Matters and nay truly be 
affectionate and often faithful to her and always ready to listen to her 
advice in time of trouble, he never forgets that he is one of the lords of 
creation and that favors shown should be gratefully received as 
condescensions on his part. While concubinage was recognized as the «an's 
privilege it was very seldom that the wife and concubine occupied the sawe 
house. I reneaiber but one instance where I was on visiting terms with the 



-31- 



husband that I was, on several occasions received by the wife and concubine 
together. In this instance the relations between the two seeded to be 
most friendly, I have heard of many other similar cases but, at the ti«e of 
which I an writing, it was far fro* being the general practice. Japanese 
history tells us that women have played a leading part in the sterner af- 
fairs of governnent. While such instances are rare they are sufficient to 
refute maudlin stories of the west regarding the down trodden woiBen of 
Japan, As a rule such stories are as absurd as they are untrue, even of the 
time I an writing. 

Early in 1876 I took up my residence at Sapporo and rewained 
there until the Kaitakushi was abolished early in 1883. 

- I EXPERIENCE SHEEP RAISING AND SUGAR BEET CULTURE 

In the meantime I had induced the authorities to order 400 
thoroughbred Merino ewes with a sufficient nu 蘭 ber of rams fro* America. 
They arrived in splendid condition early in the spring of 1876. One half 
were placed in Nanai, already mentioned, the other half I took under my own 
special care as I wished to test carefully the possibility of wool growing 
in Hokkaido as it seeemed to me to have an i 議 portant bearing on the future 
prosperity of the country. In the beginning we were sadly handicapped by 
want of proper pasturage but Managed to keep them in fair condition until 
two years later we had got 150 acres of fine land near Sapporo well sodded 
with blue grass. After this I had no trouble with the* at all. Within 
four years I had increased our flock to as many as our pasture would carry. 
By careful selection in breeding, reiaorselessly cutting out every ewe not 
up to the mark I had set, I increased the average yield of unwashed wool 
froM ten pounds per fleece, their record in the United States, to nearly 
twelve pounds. By careful experiment with over twenty plots of the 
better kinds of foreign grasses I ascertained that any grass that flouri- 

a 

shed in England or America would do eq^ly well in Hokkaido provided 
equally suitable soil was provided. I established beyond doubt that sheep 



-32- 



would thrive well in Hokkaido if properly handled and always provided 
suitable soil could be secured for the growth of the kinds of grass neces- 
sary for their well being. Hhat I reported for Hokkaido was equally true 
in regard to all northern Japan. I also gave the cost of keep in Hokkaido 
where the ground for six Months in the year is covered with snow froo three 
to ten feet in depth, as coapared with that in «ore favored lands, Australia 
the sheep districts of western Anerica and southern South America in all 
of which there was no extra expense for winters keep. I pointed out that 
the cost of producing wool at Sapporo was three or four tines greater 
than the cost of the ssne article iMported fro« Australia as reported in 
the Yokohama aarket. Also after a few years residence in Hokkaido I ascer- 
tained froM trips through and aliK>st around the island and more particu- 
larly froM the able reports of the survey departaent, geographical, geological 
and topographical [,] that at least 90X of the island ms unfit for culti- 
vation of any kind owing to the very Mountaneous character and the exten- 
sive areas 1 destroyed by volcanic ash for agricultural purposees. There 
remains the river valleys and those of svaller streaas that are subject 
to yearly overflow and thereby enriched by deposit together with a very 
linited area of heavily tiabered foot hill and low lying lands that can be 
classed as faming lands. In short there are less than 2,000,000 acres 
capable of cultivation in the entire island. So I concluded and so repor- 
ted that the idea of extensive sheep raising in Japan should be abandoned. 
That the arable lands of Hokkaido as mil as of Japan proper were nore ur- 
gently needed for the production of food for the people than for the 
growing of grass for sheep* Particularly so as wool could always be iwpor- 
ted for much less than it would be produced in Japan. And furthenwre it 
seemed doubtful if the Japanese would ever take kindly to mutton as a 
food. The grass covered Mountain slope of Japan, so beautiful frow a distan- 



-33- 



ce and the verdure of which seems sufficient to afford pasturage for 
countless herds and flocks is in reality of little value as pasturage. 
The grass is coarse and contains but little nutriment. It does not appear 
until Nay and dies in October or early Novenber when the autuwi rains wash 
away what little nutriment it ever contained and leave it a iiass of value- 
less straw. 

I have been perhaps prolix in discussing this subject, my excuse 
is a purpose in view. Recently (1920) articles have frequently appeared in 
the vernacular and foreign press relative to the government's intention 
to encourage sheep raising in every way in order to aake Japan independent 
of foreign countries in regard to wool. Only a few days since an article 
appeared in the Japan Advertiser to the effect that a neiiber of the 
Australian legislation had introduced a Bill [sic] to that body prohibiting 
the export of sheep from Australia to Japan in order to prevent serious rival- 
ry in one of Australia's most valued industries. If the Australian 
stateman [sic] had been well informed on the subject, his bill would probably 
have read "to encourage the export of sheep to Japan where an unexpected 
demand for them might soon arise for a purpose impossible of fulfilment 
and that could only result in the enrichment of Australian ranchers 
at the expense of Japan." What has become of the 鶴 any reports on this 
question I made to the authorities I do not know. Probably they are no 
longer in existence. It all reminds me so forcibly of a si 鬭 ilar incident 
that occurred in Hokkaido that I venture to relate it. 

In 1878 the Kaitakushi requested Mr. Brooks, Professor of 
Agriculture in the college and myself to make an experimental study of 
sugar beet culture with a view to the introduction of the beet sugar indus- 
try provided our report was favorable. Mr. Brooks and wyself secured a 
quantity of the seed of a dozen or more of the nost popular variety of 
beets. These seeds were divided between us and plan tea in plots of land 



-34- 



especially selected for the purpose and cultivated in the nost approved 
nanner. All sorts of fertilizers were used, large quantities on soae of 
the plots, less on other and on a few none at all. These experinents 
were continued for three years in succession. Every Means that we could 
think of being tried to get the best results possible. Hundreds of sanples 
fn» the different plots were carefully analyzed and reported upon. The 
best result obtained during the three years of experiments was about 
11% of sugar. The percentage ranging down fro* that figure to 6Z and 72. 
In France, beets that show less than 15 or 15% of sugar in the laboratory 
are considered unprofitable to 鵬 ill, and then what re«aiits of the beets 
after passing through the rollers is utilized as food for cattle. Our 
failure to get better results were doubtless, owing to the Hokkaido cliMate 
which is too cold for the developaent of a high percentage of sugar. 

Our final report utterly condemned the sugar beet project and 
the Kaitakushi officials had sufficient confidence in us to accept our 
finding as final. Within three or four years after this the Kaitakushi had 
ceased to exist and the new governnent of the island had ordered a beet 
sugar Mill, costing a 黼 illion yen which was placed at Usue Mo»betsu near 
Huroran. and contracts Mere sade with the faners for a supply of beets. 
But nore extraordinary still, before getting any results whatever fro* the 
Usue HoMbetsu venture Machinery costing about two millions of yen, 
was ordered for a much larger Mill to be erected at Sapporo. After a few years 
of disnal failures the Usue nonbetsu mill shut down. As for the Sapporo 
矚 ill the machinery was never even put into place. It would almost seem 
to indicate a tendency of Japanese character to reject any advice no natter 
how well founded it may be, that conflicts with their wishes of ill fomed 
conclusions. I an disposed to attribute it to their optimistic te«pera«ent 
that prevents the recognition of even the inpossible. 

鍾 K + ADVENTURES - 
We established in nany parts of the island breeding far»s in 



-35- 



addition to the purely experimental agricultural station at Sapporo which 
was transferred to the agricultural college. In addition to the sheep 
pasture already mentioned we had a hog ranch where all the best breeds of 
America and Europe were bred. At Makonanai about five miles fro* 
Sapporo we had a cattle ranch and dairy in connection with which 200 
acres of wild land was cleared out and cultivated in corn, hay and various 
kinds of roots as food for the cattle. At Izari about thirty miles from 
Sapporo we enclosed a fine bit of native pasture land about 2. 000 acres 
in extent for the use of sone of our horses* At Niicappu 110 miles from 
Sapporo we established our great stud fan and ranch for the inproveiient 
of Hokkaido horses by crossing, in the first place, with selected stallions 
from Nanbu and then with foreign stallions and native nares selected fro* 
the first cross between Hokkaido nares and Nanbu stallions. In the 
Chibichari valley adjoining the nain ranch we secured about 300 aroac of 
fine bottom land which we got under cultivation to supply winter food 
for our foreign stallions nares and half breeds. The main ranch contained 
about 35,000 acres divided by post and rail fencing into ten or a dozen 
separate enclosures. In assisting in the laying out of this ranch I 
spent two weeks in camp where [sic] as there were no available houses that 
could be used as head quarters. The Niicappu river bounded the western side 
of the ranch and Chibichari river the eastern. Its nearest point to the sea 
Mas then ten miles distant and it was about fifteen miles in extreme length 
and varies in width from two to five or six miles. The only people near it 
were a few Ainu living in huts along the two rivers. The southern part 
of the ranch is of high but almost flat grass land fifty or sixty feet 
above the rivers. It gradually changes into rolling then hilly land that 
terminates in the foot hills of a lofty mountain at the northern end of the 
ranch. All of the northern part is wooded and covered with a dense growth 
of scrub bamboo from two to five feet in height which is an excellent 
winter's food for the hardy Hokkaido pony. We stocked our ranch with 1,000 



-36- 



selected Hokkaido i»res and placed with the* about fifty of the best 
Naabu stallions that could be fnrocured. Four thoroughbred stallions were 
imported for 議 America which, together with "Don" 黼 y Tokio pet covered 200 
specially selected native aares. These were kept in the hone paddock, near 
the center of the ranch, where stables and dwelling houses for the Manager 
and the Men were erected* In due tine about 90% of the Bares bred to Naabu 
stallions were found to be with foal whereas about 40% of those bred to 
our inported stallions becane pregnant. This great discr^iancy was doubt- 
less owing to the difference in tenperanent of the native and thorough- 
bred. 

This shyness in crossing led ne to believe it would be easier to 
introduce a foreign breed of horses by importing both Hale and feaale than 
to attenpt to iaprove the native by crossing with foreign blood. But at 
the sa»e tiae I becane convinced that the native horse that could be 
greatly inproved by careful selection was the very best aniaal for the 
general needs of the Japanese people. For nilitary and carriage as well as 
racing and riding purposes a better horse is desirable, but the breeding of 
this class of horses should be kept separate and entirely distinct fron 
the wants of the faraer and general run of the Japanese people. However, 
we had 70 or 80 half breds and over 500 native colts to show at the end of 
our first year. But to our horror we discovered that wolves with wnich 
that part of Hokkaido was at that tine infested seemed competent to devour 
horse flesh rather faster than we could produce it. One lot of 90 »ares 
with foals had been placed in an enclosure to themselves, within a week 
or ten days they were rounded up but not a colt was with the«. Every one of 
the 90 had been killed; their bones were scattered all over the place. 

Wolves + Grass hoppers 
The Hokkaido wolf is a formidable beast but not dangerous to man 
so long as other prey is to be had for the killing. During the winter 
Months, at the time of which I am writing, they lived «ostly upon deer which 



-37- 



were very plentiful. During the sunner their diet was principally horse 
meat. A full grown wolf weighs froM 70 to 80 pounds, he has an enoinous 
head and mouth armed with tremendous fangs and teeth. He is generally very 
lean but exceedingly nuscular. Of a grey color in snwrner and greyish white 
in winter, when his fur is thick and long. His feet are remarkable for 
their size, three or four tines larger than the feet of the largest dog 
which they resemble in shape, only the claws are much longer. Their large 
feet enable them to travel rapidly over deep snow that soon tires a 
fleeing deer that could easily run away from his eneny when the grouno is 
bare. They usually hunt singly or in couple but frequently the trail of 
a pack of four or five or even nore is seen in the snow. They are widely 
scattered throughout the island as a rule but few in any one neighborhood. 
Doubtless the large number of horses we had confined in a limited area 
attracted then fron near and far. After killing the colts in the outlying 
pastures it was not long before they began on the mothers* In fact the 
situation becane so serious that it was up to us to exteniinate the wolves 
or go out of the horse breeding business at Niicappu. As it was 
hopeless to attempt to hunt then down we sent to Tokio and Yokohana for 
all the strychnine to be had and fearing there was not enough for our 
purpose in those places, sent a supplementary order to San Francisco for 
more. We succeeded in getting enough to poison every living thing on the 
island. 

We went to work systematically. We organized a patrol of about 
twenty horsemen each of theM had his daily route assigned to hi«. Each 
would be supplied with chuncks of poisoned meat to be dropped at likely 
places and with a snail bottle of strychnine to be used in case of which 
there were many, the carcass of a murdered horse or colt was found. In such 
case the neat remaining would be deeply slashed and a liberal allowance 
of our seasoning sprinkled within it. The success of our systematic work 



-38- 



Mas iMnediate and within a few Months complete. 

A wolf cannot resist the teiq>tation of a bit of ran neat and 
although he nay not relish the flavor that strychnine iaparts he probably 
has enough of it in his inside to do its deadly work before he realizes 
that it is not to his liking. The first day's bag was five or six dead 
wolves found, probably others slunk away to die in places where they could 
not be found. Their bodies would usually be found near the poisoned carcass 
or bait, where if undisturbed they would reaiain gorging themselves until 
the deadly stuff began to work and it works very quickly. Often they 
would be found near water where they had gone to quench the terrible 
thirst the poison creates. Our first day's bag was our best. A few were 
bagged every day for a week or ten days, then only one or so occasionally* 
Then for weeks our bag would be nil until, finally the beasts were wiped 
out. So within one suMier and aut 画 we were freed from a pest that in the 
spring seeded very threatening to our enterprise. Hundreds of dead foxes 
croMs and an occasional Ainu stray dog were found near our plants which 
was of course unavoidable. 

番 

After this the work at Niicappu was easy and fairly successful 
with the exception of one suimer when the entire southern coast of the 
island and for nany Miles inland was visited by enormous swanis of locusts 
that destroyed every green plant they happened to settle on. It was the 
sane insect that occasionally visits the western states of the United 
Sates as well as many other parts of the world. It has been known for 
thousands of years as the curse of Egypt on account of the utter des- 
truction of every green thing in the places it visits. On hearing of 
the visitation I at once left Sapporo for Niicappu. I first observed the 
extraordinary phenomenon on reaching an extensive sandy plain about fifty aiiles 
distant froa Niicappu. Above as far as the eye could reach the air was 
filled with glistening wings. When I rode on to the plain I found the 



-39- 



insects were dropping in countless millions. The ground was black with 
then, in places they were a squiraing Mass several inches deep. The feaales 
had selected this plain as a suitable place for depositing their eggs. 
The plain was about five 矚 iles in length and fro« one to two Miles wide. 
I rode through its entire length. It was all the sane frow one to the 
other. On «y return the swam of locusts had left but every inch of that 
great sandy plain was pitted and each pit contained from fifty to one 
hundred eggs that hatched out with the first wani days of the following 
spring. From this place on to Niicappu I passed under and through several 
similar sHanis. Upon «y arrival I found that continuous swar«s had passed 
over the place but, as yet, none had settled there. But the next day they 
settled on our farm in enotnous quantities. At the tine we had 100 acres 
of splendid corn in roasting ear and a field of 50 acres of neadow from 
which, fortunately, the grass had been gathered but which was covered 
with a fine aftergrowth. Within a few hours after the swarm settled every leaf 
on the tall corn stalks was gone and the ears of corn entirely denuded 
of their covering husks « The meadow grass was entirely eaten to the ground 
which was as bare as it was before seeding. I walked through the com 
field while the little devils were having their lunch. Every corn stalk, 
every blade, was black with than and wherever I placed wy foot dozens 
were crushed into a nasty mess. I was literally walking on insects not on 
the ground. Without seeing it no one can imagine the enorwous quantities 
of living things appearing at any spot in so short a time. The habits 
and history of the locust or grass hopper is an extrewely interesting 
story but too long for n»e to tell. After my experience with then I read 
all the literature on the subject that I could find* The records of the 
U.S. Department of Agriculture of the tine I am writing are very complete 
and extremely interesting reading for any one interested in insect life. 



-40- 



- Travels in the Interior - 
The looking after our aany live stock establislMents was by 
no Means a slothful job. As there Mas no other weans of getting about 
I spent fully one half of my business hours in the saddle. When I first 
visited Sapporo the department paid all traveling expenses of the foreign 
enployees. They were allowed to take with then a cook and boy at govern - 
nent expense and were supplied with table linen, knives and forks and all 
sorts of food. A paysaster accospanied the* and also acted as their 
interpreter. They were expected to nake ten ri - 25 鶴 Ues - per day. The 
retinue of a geologist or nining expert, for instance, on inspection tours 
resenbled that of a dai 颺 yo traveling to visit the Shogun. While very 
comfortable this sort of getting about did not suit ay book at all, so I 
applied for the saae traveling allowance paid to Japanese officers 
according to their rank and salaries. My request was readily granted and 
it not only saved a lot of trouble but also a considerable sun of Money. 
I made my own arrangenents accordingly. At Niicapu I fixed up a rooM of my 
own where I kept all sorts of supplies including extra clothing. At a few 
other places I kept a few things that would cone in handy in case I was 
obliged, for any reason, to break the journey. When called upon to nake 
distant trips of several days even weeks if my route was through parts 
inhabited by Japanese, if the distance Mas not great, three or four days, my 
supplies consisting of coffee, a little sugar, lots of tobacco and an 
extra flannel shirt, were carried in 観 y saddle bags and a blanket and water 
proof strapped behind My saddle* On longer journeys I took with ne an 
Ainu who carried extra supplies on his horse. Trips in the interior of 
which I made several, where not even an Ainu hut would be seen at days 
for a tine, required two pack horses to carry a snail tent and other 
necessaries if the route was by land, if by river Ainu canoes sinplified 
things very 麵 uch. Former experiences had taught ne the value of traveling 
light when "roughing it* was necessary. So even on the inland trips I 



-41- 



always found the very liberal allowance made m by the governaent wore 
than sufficient to neet all expenses. The inland trips were delightful 
when the weather was fine, abominable when bad. I always took both rifle 
and shot gun with ne and imnaged to keep the larder supplied with fresh 
meat. Occasionally a deer, always quantities of willow grouse 
in the woods and Mandarin duck along the streams. On one occasion I was 
following up a small stream in quest of ducks when I was startled by a 
large wolf junping out of sone high grass within ten feet of «e. Before 
he had got twenty yards away I had given him both barrels of duck shot in 
his behind. It seened only to accelerate his retreat. The last I saw of hi 黼 
his bushy tail was whirling around like the propeller of an aeroplane. 
Bear signs were always plentiful and they would prowl around the canp 
in the most impudent manner at night. On one occasion when on a ten days 
canoe trip up the Ishikari river with my friend Mr. Boeh«er, a tremendous 
fellow judging from his tracks in the sand passed, twice around our tent and 
between it and our party of Ainu who were sleeping outside within 
twenty yards of it. We occasionally sighted one in daylight but they 
always managed to get away before we could get in a shot. During my eight 
years in Hokkaido only once did I come to close quarters with a bear* 
He was badly wounded and in a very bad humor when I managed to get in his 
way. By a lucky shot from a heavy Remington rifle the subsequent pro- 
ceedings interested him no more. He was about the size of a cow. 

S 

As an instance of tough work that sometimes came in My way 
I venture to tell of a rough ride that I shall never forget. I was at 
home one very wet night enjoying a book and cigar when, at about, ten 
o'clock a visitor was announced. When he was shown in, I recognized one 
of our best young wen stationed at Niicappu* The poor chap was so 



-42- 



played out he could hardly stand or speak. I gave hiM a stiff drink of 
whisky. After its desired effect, he told ae he had left Niicuppu that 
Morning, that our best thoroughbred stallion "Dublin" was very ill and that 
he Mas sent by tiie aanager to ask Me to co«e at once. I felt sure ny going 
was useless as the horse would be either well or dead before I could 
reach there. But there was an off chance that I night be in tiae to help 
and as the horse had cost $5,000 in Aiierica, I decided that I could not 
disregard the urgent request to cove. After instructions to feed the 
young man and put him to bed, at about eleven o' clock I was off on my 110 
矚 ile ride. It Mas raining torrents and continued to do so the entire 
night. I was riding a powerful native horse of ny (»m that on a good road 
could sake an eight or nine 矚 iles an hour for 25 or 30 矚 iles. The road 
for the first 25 鳙 iles was of clay and in horrible condition. It took 
Me six hours to cover it. This brought He to Chitose where I had a good 
breakfast and left 齲 y own horse, changing to a goveriaent post horse. 
Here I realized the utter folly of the job I had undertaken but a sense 
of duty and pride sent ne on. 

The road fro* Chitose entered a piuiice region and was good until 
I reached the sand dunes near the sea. At Yufutsu on the sea which I 
reached about noon I had soae food, changed horse again and was off again 
within half an hour after arrival. I was then 45 "iles fron Sapporo and 
began to feel the effects of the all night ride without sleep. Ten 爾 iles 
further on, where I changed again, the road follows the beach which is hard 
and good tine can be nade if horse and rider are in good tria, but only 
one half of ay ride was finished and I realized that I could not aake the 
other half. I got along fairly mil for the next 20 or 25 wiles changing 
horses twice. After that it was a nightnare. How I managed the next 20 觏 iles 
I do not reneMber. I rode on half asleep never fully awake, suffering 
terribly froa chafed legs caused by the wet that had found its way through 



-43- 



ny water proof. About 8 p.n. I reached Chibichari 100 miles from Sapporo 
and 10 miles from the ranch. Here I net Mr. lyani, our Manager, He and the 
inn keeper helped me off and half carried me into the house. How is *Dub" 
I asked. All right, replied lyani. After that I could only renenber 
drinking some whisky hot, eating something, then oblivion for twelve hours. 

The next morning with the exception of being very stiff and 
the absence of some square inches of skin from my hind parts, I was 
feeling fairly fit again. With a "futon" over 翻 y saddle I Managed to wake 
the remaining ten niles on the ranch where I found Dublin looking bright 
and cheerful. He had had a very bad attack of colic. Doubtless he 
kicked up a devil of a row while it lasted which was for a few hours only. 
Before and since then I have Hade the ride from Sapporo to the ranch and 
vice versa in one day without extreme fatigue but always a saki bure 
(messenger) was sent ahead the day before to have good horses ready at 
every post station and, moreover, I never started unless the weather was fine 
and, finally, most inportant of all, I had always a good night's rest before 
starting. Even under the Host favorable conditions I never nade the ride 
in less than eighteen or nineteen hours including an hour's rest at noon, 
I was sadly handicapped by 顏 y weight, about 185 pounds at that tine. A 
rather big load for a Hokkaido pony. A Japanese friend of 鴯 ine in charge of 
the stud at Nanai, and one of the finest horseiien I have ever met, would 
cover the same ground that I did in one third less tine* But his weight was 
under 100 pounds. My record tine between Sapporo and Nanai, 30 hours, is bet- 
ter than his but entirely owing to a steaM boat waiting for ne at Huroran 
to take ne across Volcano bay to Hori. And also to the fact that ny 
friend Hakodate never being in too great hurry to prevent hi 画 from 
loitering at any place where the "sake* was to his liking or where a 
pretty girl showed up. The life I led kept ne as hard as iron and I 



-44- 



hardly knew what sickness was. On one occasion, however, I was overtaken 
by a severe diarrhea when fifteen Miles on my way hoMeward bound, from 
Niicapu. There was a young nan with me at the time »bom I sent ahead. I 
cautioned him to say nothing to My wife, as I knew it was nothing serious, 
but to tell her that I was detained by business. She, suspecting from his 
Manner that something was wrong, got the whole story froM hi 難 within five 
minutes and nade her arrangements accordingly. She ordered 議 y Ainu hunter 
to have horses ready before daylight next Horning and to acconpany her. 
She Mas a light weight even for a Japanese Monan and the Ainu was not «uch 
■ore* They Bade the 95 niles to where I was stopping under 15 hours. I 
was surprised indeed when she walked into my roon as spry as you please. 
I was about all right again but decided to stay over a couple of days to 
give My wife a rest and witness > with her, an interesting Ainu festival 
that Mas taking place close by. It Mas a yearly affair that takes place 
when the salnon conwence running up the rivers. Close by our honj in - a lar- 
ge inn established by the governinent for the accoanodation of travelers - 
the Niicapu river enters the sea. The festival was held on a large sand 
bank between the river and sea. The only ornanental part of it consisted 
of hundreds of peeled stakes driven into the sand along the river and sea 
beach. The stakes were shaved from the top half way down into a aass of 
shavings that fomed a festoon like heads [sic] to each stake. The festiv- 
ities were kept up all day and most of the night when bon fires were kept 
blazing at nany places. They consisted in the first place of all the men 
getting drunk and keeping in that condition as long as they had a sen in Mo- 
ney or credit to buy "sake". There were over 100 of them. They would form 
circles, Men and woHen clasping hands and hop around the ring chanting 
all the tine. These chants or songs were rather pleasing to the ear, 
particularly the voices of the woMen were soft and clear. When 'y wife 
and self appeared on the scene we were at once set upon for a contribu- 



-45- 



tion to replenish their store of "sake" which was running low. We got 
in their good graces by a sufficient contribution to buy two kegs and 
thereafter had the run of the camp as honored guests. After we had seen 
enough of the performance and our curiosity was soon satisfied, a party of 
about 30 accompanied us back to the Honjin and had a special dance, in 
front of the hotel in our honor. It was not until I had sent out another 
keg of "sake* that we finally got rid of then. With their extra prize they 
went trooping back to their conrades. In crossing the river on their 
return one of the overloaded canoes capsized* the river was deep and rapid 
but all. Men and women, old and young, swa 矚 ashore like ducks, or perhaps 
more like water dogs. Next morning we left for hone going as far as Chi lo- 
se, 70 miles where we spent the night. My wife acconpanied ne frequently 
in short trips and became a good horsewooan. She was never afraid and had 
a good seat and gentle but firm hanas. 

- The Ainu - 

In 1884 the number of Ainu in Hokkaido was estimated at about 
100,000. Only a small rennant of earlier days. The center of population 
was at Saru on the south coast where there were seven villages which had 
been large, but when I visited that place had dwindled until there were 
only a few hundred huts left. Their hereditary chief, Penre, had lost all 

r 

semblence of dignity. He was a fine looking old chap but a great djinkard. 
Whenever we met he always tapped me for two yen for "sake", he was perfectly 
satisfied with that amount but not with a sen less. As the Saru river 
swarmed with salmon trout in the season, I frequently fishea it and 
considered the two yen well spent in securing the good will of the old 
villain and his villagers. The Ainu has many good qualities, they are 
gentle and faithful and not lacking in courage, are excellent fisher«en. 
hunters and horsemen but soon tire of steady employment. In olden times 
they occupied alvost all of Japan, certainly further south than Kyoto as 



善 



the naaes of rivers and places testify to this day. They had, in all 
probability invaded Japan froa the north cosing fro* Siberia and perhaps, 
Kanchatka, Sakhalin and Hokkaido into Japan proper. They found a race of 
people, called the Koro Pok Goro or pit dwellers, according to Ainu 
tradition, occupying Hokkaido and northern Japan. These aborigines were 
gradually driven south by the Ainu who in turn were driven north by the 
Japanese. In their palny days the Ainu seen to have been well governed. 
For a pri 黼 itive people their laws and custoMS were excellent. Tneir aorals 
would* perhaps, compare favorably with those of soiie so-called hignly 
civilized people of today. When finally subdued by the Japanese, they 
gradually degenerated. Reduced to a condition of servitude, their spirit 
as a people was broken and *sake* and disease did the rest. Before the 
resotration the coast and rivers of Hokkaido were dividea into fishing 
districts which were sold to the highest bidder by the governaent. The 
fishing privileges included services of the Ainu living in the 
respective districts. This fon of slavery was done 
away with after the restoration. 

But even the debauched rennant of this one tine aost interes- 
ting people still have excellent qualities. I always had one or two Ainu 
in my employ to look after ay horses and as hunters. I always found then 
faithful, honest and courageous. As hunters and trackers they equal 
the American Indian. When on extended trips I always took with ne, for 
their use, a sufficient quantity of "sake" of which I would leasure out to 
each twice or three times a day what I considered sufficient. They always 
seened satisfied with what I gave then, never asking for 
more. As trackers of wounded deer they are invaluable. After the deer 
has made off they would always wait to give the poor beast ti«e to weaken 
from loss of blood. Then they would follow the trail unerringly. A 
drop of blood here, a broken weed or a foot print that I would not notice 



-47- 



at all was sufficient guide for then. After a tine they would notice 
indications that the aninal was seeking a place in which to lie dotm. then 
they would beckon me to cone up close. Sonetines the poor creature would 
be found dead in its lair, generally it had enough vitality left to aake 
another try for liberty but a well planted bullet at close quarters 
usually finished the business. As for their courage I reneMber one 
occasion when I had been out deer hunting with «y pet Ainu* On the second 
day it set in to rain violently. The next morning Me started for hoa»« 
much to my disgust, when we reached the Toyohira river we found the bridge 
down, at one end, in the water. Below the bridge there Mas a wide and easy 
ford at ordinary times but, although the water had subsided very much it 
was still running very strong. While I was confident the very powerful 
horse I was riding could get across without difficulty it was a different 
matter for the small pony the Ainu was riding. So I bade him wait until 
the water ran down and I would cross alone. I rode in and was nearly 
across when I heard a cowRotion behind Me. I looked back and saw ay 
Ainu and his pony rolling down stream at an alarning rate of speed. 
Finally they both landed safely on the Sapporo side. I asked the Ainu why 
he had disobeyed my orders. His reply was "Where the mishipo (naster) 
goes Ainu follow". When he saw ne in nid strean he knew perfectly well 
from the fact that my big horse was having about all he could do to keep 
his feet that his little pony could not possibly get across on his feet. 
He did cross but landed on the other side 200 yards below his starting 
place and was a very delapidated looking Ainu when he did so. 

They get about when hunting without making the least noise. 
They wear deer skin Moccasions and never speak. Their comunications are 
all by signs. I used the sane foot gear until I got sone Canadian moccasions 
which are the best foot gear in the world for a hunter. Anything in the 
shoe or boot line is an abomination. The Ainu are poor marksmen owing to 
never having had a decent gun to shoot with. All they had then was a snooth 



-48- 



bore Muzzel loading carbine with twenty four inch barrel that carried 
a round ball of an ounce in weight. At 30 yards it is deadly, at 40 uncer- 
tain and at 50 no good at all. No Ainu mould drem of taking a chance shot 
even at a deer 60 yards amy. When they saw that I rarely, if ever, failed 
at 125 yards and generally got home at 150 or 200, they looked upon ay 
shooting as so«e thing Marvelous. On two occasions I Bade flukes that 
flabbergasted the«. One was a running buck that I 讓 issed twice and brought 
doHD with the third shot at 325 yards when running at full speed. The 
second was a buck standing in an open snow covered plain 450 yds fro« te. 
As there was no possibility of approaching nearer I took an off hand shot 
at bin. He fell in his tracks, dead. I was just about as wich surprised 
as the Ainu standing by me but passed it off as nothing unusual. The 
heads of these and that of a third all secured on the sane outing 
I kept for years over my front door at Sapporo. The third buck was running 
directly fro 麵 ne and about 125 yds distant when I fired. He ran on for 75 
or 100 yds, when he dropped dead. The 50 calibre bullet had struck hi 颺 
fairly in the buttock, passed entirely through hin lengthwise and out 
at his neck. When we cut him up we found that in its passage the bullet 
had laid open one ventricle of the heart. I had known before that a deer 
could, at tines, run away with enough lead in him to have dropped a bear 
in his tracks but had never heard of such vitality as was shown in this 
instance. 

- Instances of Ma n's Vitality - 
As regard to vitality nan seeas to be well endowed with it as 
any of the lower aniaals. In 1878 or 79 two Englistnen, Sir R. Beauchamp 
and a Mr. Wilson cane to Hokkaido to get soae deer shooting. They arrived 
in January and aade caap at a place near Bibi about 30 讓 iles south of 
Sapporo. It was very cold and the snow was from 2 to 3 feet deep. Deer 
Mere scarce and difficult to approach. One morning Hr. Wilson got on the 



-49- 



track of a deer which he followed for several hours. Finally sonetine in 
the afternoon he succeeded in killing his deer but in following its trail 
in many directions was conpletely lost. The sky t^ing over cast and not 
being provided with a coMpass, he had no means of detemining his position, 
A prudent nan in his position would have followed back on his own trail 
no natter hoM crooked it was, but he, not realizing his danger, struck out in 
what he thought was the direction to canp. The result was disastrous. He 
wandered about all night* It was very cold, several degrees below zero and 
he knew that his only chance was to keep Moving* He kept on the next day 
until evening when becoains entirely exhausted his last recollection was 
grasping a snail tree and Nalking around it in a last effort to keep awake. 
In the mean time his cosrade had been searching for liin since early Mor- 
ning, now and then firing his gun in the hope of Wilson hearing it. As night 
approached Beauchaap gave up in despair of finding hi 羅 and started back 
for caflip with the intention of going to Bibi for help. When within a nile 
of camp he fired his gun again and iiiagined he heard a faint cry near at 
band. He hastened to the spot indicated by the call and to his great joy 
found Wilson lying on the ground in an almost senseless state. Beauchawp 
must have been a very powerful man for he got Wilson on his back and 
carried him to their canp alaost a 矚 ile distant. Wilson had no recollec- 
tion of hearing Beauchamp's last shot nor of calling out. He 'ust have 
been in a subconscious condition when he did so. It was one of the nearest 
things that I ever heard of. Wilson must have been ten or twelve miles 
from canp when he killed the deer. In his atteapt to reach it he wandered 
in many directions for 24 hours. By «ere chance he got within a mile of it 
when he gave out conpletely. By an alnost equal chance BeauchaMp passed 
near the place where Wilson was lying and at just the right moment fired 
off his gun and elicited a cry fro« the alnost unconscious man. Another 
hour and Wilson would have been dead. On hearing of the mishap I rigged up 



-50- 



a Russian sledge with a Mattress on it and brought Wilson to Sapporo Hhere 
he had every attention. He was lodced after by Dr. Cutter, chief of the 
Sapporo hospital. He was badly frozen and lost all of his toes and part of 
one foot. He was frozen in Many other places whidi aade deep and painful 
wounds but he took it all sniling without a coaplaint or, seemingly, without 
a regret. 

The sane or the next year a still More remarkable case of surviving 
occurred. On the 29th of March two men and a boy of fifteen or sixteai left 
the Military settlenent at Ebetsubuto very early in the noming for Sapporo 
15 黼 iles distant. They expected to reach Sapporo before noon and took only 
a lunch with thea. At that season of the year the snow Melts during the 
day and freezes hard at night so that until about noon traveling on the 
snow is first class. Even fox or horse sledge go over it without leaving a 
trace: The party in question anticipated no difficulty in reaching 
Sapporo. In fact the trip was nade every day by some of tiie villagers. But, 
unfortunately this particular party ms overtaken by a blizzard before 
going half the distance and were forced to seek shelter in a grove of 
trees sone distance off the direct route. The blizzard proved to be a very 
bad one. It continued all night and day. Much snow fell and it turned 
intensely cold. The party were so badly frozen during the night that they 
were helpless. They nanaged to crawl to a thicket of tall reeds through 
which a snail brook of unfrozen water flowed. By using reeds as pipes 
they Managed to suck up all the water they wanted but they were entirely 
without food. To cut a long story short the two aen died within a week. The 
boy was found alive 29 days after he had left his hone. His Howry of what 
occurred for the first ten days see«ed to be quite clear. He saia that 
after his conrades died foxes and crows fed on their bodies, he was too weak 
to drive the« away. He Managed to get their clothing which kept hi 矚 



-51- 



f airly warm. The bodies of the men were nuch nutilated. I have often 
wondered if that boy assisted the foxes and crows. He declared that all 
he had was water to drink. Hho could blane the poor suffering wretch if 
he helped hinself to soM^hing else? Dr. Cutter anputated both of his 
legs below the knee. He also lost parts of almost all of his fingers. Dr» 
Cutter's account of the case was published in an ARierican medical journal 
of the highest standing. It can doubtless be found without difficulty 
today. I saw the boy on several occasions after he was discharged fron the 
hospital. 

» 

In addition to deer Hokkaido was pretty well stocked with small 
game which afforded fairly good sport. But the finest sport of all was the 
salmon trout fishing. During the season that the fish would take the fly 
the sport was very fine. Captain Blakiston of Hakodate would join us 
almost every year in fishing the Toyohira which was perhaps, the finest 
river in the island for salmon trout. The fish ran fron 3 to 12 pounds 
and in rapid water gave any one but a hog all the fun he could desire. 
Blakiston was far and away the best of the lot in handling a rod. To see 
him manipulating a two handed rod with bad ground back of hiM was a delight 
in itself. 

Blakiston was one of the most interesting men I ever met. A 
delightful and instructive companion, a staunch friend to those who gained 
his confidence, unapproachable to those he did not like. He had been a 
captain of artillery in his country's service, was a veteran of the Crimean 
war, was ordered to China in 1858 bringing out the first battery of Arm- 
strong guns ever sent east of the Cape. He with a companion were the first 
white men to ascend and pass beyond the rapids of the Yangstekyang, [sic] His 
account of the trip published in book form, now out of print, is a most 
interesting work. His Birds of Japan is still the standard work on the 



-52- 



subject. 

Exteniination of the Peers [sic] 

Hhen I first went to Hokkaido deer was very plentiful in all parts 
of the island during Han weather. Nith the first big fall of snoN, 
usually about the first of December, they aigrated in great herds to the 
south and west coasts where the snow fall was 黼 uch less. In early Decea- 
ber 1885 I Made a visit to one of their favorite winter feeding grounds. 
I found the« coMing in in droves of fron a dozen to fifty* I selected and 
shot four fat young bucks and cached the neat until our return. Afterwards 
I spent the day sightseeing. With ny Ainu hunter we rode by Many herds 
coning in. On horseback by gradually coming in on a herd passing through 
wooded land I found we could approach within 40 or 50 yards without 
causing alar 謂 • Had I desired I could have shot 50 without difficulty but 
as I have always considered killing the nore gane than can be used as 
sinple Murder I did not fire a shot. At such tine the Ainu get in their 
work, laying in a store of neat and hides for winter use. After the deer 
scattered in their winter quarters they were not so easy to approach. 

The winters of 1878 - 79 were very severe. The snow extending 
from coast to coast. Had they been unmolested the deer would have pulled 
through without very great loss but unfortunately there was a great deaand 
for hides and horns at that tine. The poor improvident Ainu could not 
resist the tenptation of i mediate gain. The deer had collected in 
thousands in the nost sheltered valleys and ravines where, owing to the 
deep snow, the Ainu on snow shoes overtook then easily and slaughtered Many 
tens of thousnads with clubs and dogs. In the Hukawa district alone - 15 
niles by 5 - 75,000 skeletons were counted in the spring by wen sent by 
the governnent to ascertain the loss. And the sane government did nothing 
whatever to prevent the slaughter fro* being repeated the next year in a 
less degree as there were fewer deer to kill. The result was practical 



-53- 



extemination. There were a few deer left but whereas before one could 
always rely upon getting plenty of venison when on an outing, afterwards 
tinned neats were in order. And the fool Ainu instead of delicious 
venison was obliged to live entierly on dried fish and lily roots. 

Second Visit of His Majesty. 
In 1881 the Emperor visited Hokkaido accompanied by a large 
nunber of dignitaries. I had the honor of accompanying hi 矚 to several 
of our places which he wished to see. He had a beautiful half mile race 
course in the Sapporo park where we arranged to have some races for His 
Hajesty's pleasure. He had quite a number [of] half bred colts as well as 
native ponies which had had sone previous training that showed up fairly 
well. We also had several of our stud stallions there for His Majesty's 
inspection. His Majesty expressed a wish to see Dublin in action and that 
I should ride hin. At least I was so informed but I always believed the 
suggestion had been aade to His najesty and he only approved it* In his 
day Dublin had been one of Kentucky's crack race horses but of course 
was entirely out of training. But he had had his daily exercise daily and 
was not beefy. So I counted upon getting about 200 yards of fair speed 
out of him but not more. I started him at a canter with two native 
ponies leading about 200 yards ahead. I followed then around the first 
turn and up the back stretch when I began to close in and was just behind 
when we entered the hone stretch. I then let the old felloM go. He responded 
like a colt, passed the ponies in three strides and the Emperor's stand 
at fine speed considering his condition. Before reaching the next turn 
I felt that Dublin was pimped so I pulled hi 觀 up and rode slowly around 
the track to the Emperor's stand. Dublin had then got back his wind and 
showed up finely, excited as he was with his gallop. Before this I had been 
acting as judge of the races my box being entirely opposite His Majesty's 
stand. After the races were over I was received by His Majesty who was 
pleased to say he had enjoyed the sport very much. 



-54- 



THE SAPPOBO AGBICULTUBAL COLLEGE. 
No one has a greater adairation for the Sapporo Agricultural 
College than I and no one recognizes aore fully the good work it has 
done for Japan. In proportion to its endoment I believe it has turned 
out aore maa of aark than any other institution of learning in the country. 
Hosts of its graduates are Ham friends of aine today and there is not 
one of the* whoa I do not respect and esteea. Therefore I wish to state 
enphatically that what I have to say regarding that adairable institution 
is in no sense derogatory of the work it has already accoaplished and is 
doing today. 

FroB the ti«e of 議 y arrival in Japan until his retire«ent as 
Chief of the Kaitakushi in 1881, my relations with General Kuroda were very 
satisfactory to ne and I believe he regarded Me with respect ana estee*. 
In the beginning I had Many interviews with him regarding agricultural 
developnent and stock raising in Hokkaido. As we becane better acquainted 
and perhaps, his confidence in ne increased, we frequently discussed other 
questions relating to the develofiaent of the island that were foreign to 
矚 y speciality. On one occasion I ventured to point out to bin the sad 
condition into which the fisheries - by far the mst valuable industry 
of Hokkaido at that tiw - were drifting. The terrible waste apparent to 
the most casual observer and the alnost entire absence of goverment 
control. I gave him a paper I had <m the New Poundland fisheries which, at 
that tine yeilded about £15.000.000 annually, greatly due to the strict 
control and supervision, whereas the entire Hokkaido fisheries including 
the Kurile islands did not yield one twentieth of that aaount. The 
enorHOus waste in the herring fisheries alone, Uie catch of which Mounted 
to thousands of tons, alnost all of which was piled in enonous heaps 
on the nearest beach, was boiled in great iron kettles and then placed in hand 
presses and pressed into square cubes and shipped away as fish aanttre. The 
oil pressed out was allowed to flow back into the sea. The almost complete 



-55- 



blocking of salnon and salnon trout fron their spaiming beds by the nets 
and traps of the fisherven who were subject to no control whatever, I 
also spoke of the reckless waste of valuable ti 講 ber also subject to no 
control or supervision. In regard to My special work I said that while 
well enough in its way it was not extensive enough to have much influence 
throughout the island. I urged that all industries in Hokkaido should be 
subjected to government control and supervision. But to be effective the 
control should be exercised by nen who understood their business, otherwise 
it would be worse than useless. 

To neet the situation I suggested that a school be established 
at Sapporo idiere practical instruction be given in the industries 
indicated by thoroughly competent wen selected fro* abroad, that the tech- 
nical instruction or class rooM work be li 觀 ited to the winter Months when 
too cold for actual work in the field. In short my idea was a small school 
of technology which could be enlarged to Meet the developwent of the 
island. The above is a synopsis of several interviews with General Kuroda 
who seeaed iapressed with 霞 y views and said they would be carefully consi- 
dered and probably adopted with amplifications which night seen desirable. 
General Kuroda returned to Tokio where he spent the greater part of his 
time and I heard nothing more of the project for some Months when I 
learned that the Japanese Minister at Washington had been instructed to 
engage a number of professors for the purpose of establisning an indus- 
trial school at Sapporo. There seens to have been but little left of the 
project talked over with General Kuroda when it got to Washington. The 
Minister evidently believed that what was wanted was an agricultural colle- 
ge and in that belief selected the Amherst Agricultural College as 
the best nodel obtainable. He engaged the services of Professor Clark, at 
that time president of the Amherst College, and Professor Clark naturally 
selected as his assistants a mwber of graduates of that institution to go 



-56- 



with him to Japan. Professor Clark, Mas an able Han, a good leader and 
organizer of aen. Be case to establish a fac-si 鷗 ile of the taherst insti- 
tution of learning at Sapporo and did it, perhaps iaproved on the original. 
The practical instruction given in an Anerican agricultural college is 
very little. The great Majority of students of such institutions are sons 
of farners and are well instructed in all practical fan work before they 
enter the college. They go there to get technical knonledge uiK>btaiiiable at 
ho«e. The agricultural college supplies this want and is, therefore, of the 
utmost importance in any faming comunity, where as a rule the ignorance 
of high faming is astonishing, but in Japan such institutions are valueless. 
There is no Material to Hork with. In the first place the sons of Japanese 
farwers do not attend college and if they did the Methods of agriculture in 
the two countries are so different that, excepting the value and appli- 
cation of fertilizers, the teaching of the Aaerican institution could have 
but snail results. It is true we were atteapting to introduce American 
Methods into Hokkaido but that could only be acconplished by practical 
work in the field. The Sapporo Agricultural College* as an educational 
institution Mas a success froM the start. It was well conducted by very 
competent men. Its carefully selected students fron the southern schools 
were intellectually and aorally of a very high class. Under Presidents 
Clarkt Penhallow, Brooks and lastly, under the able guidance of President 
Sato, it has beco«e a nost adnirable institution of learning and has well 
earned its present rank as university. But in so far as its influence and 
effect upon the industries of Hokkaido are concerned it Might just as well 
have been located in Tokio or any other place in Japan proper. My object 
was, exclusively, the developnent of the industries of Hokkaido. President 
Clark's, the foundation of an institution of learning. He succeeded. I did 
not. As a result the fisheries yield but a tithe of what they did then, the 
beautiful forests of valuable timber that covered the entire island 【that] night 



-57- 



have been preserved as a store house for all Japan have been recklessly 
Masted until but a rennant renains. But Sapporo has her university 
at the cost of a great part of the wealth that nature gave the island. 
But what of it? The college and university have always been aost highly 
spoken of and President Clark is canonized as a benefactor of Japan gene- 
rally and Hokkaido in particular. Who knows or cares what light have been 
had the siiiple little school of connon sense been established instead of 
the institution of learning? "What fools m Mortals be*. 

While the story of the Sapporo Agricultural College is rather a so- 
re Memory with me I feel that my work there has borne sone fruit in 
improved Methods and products of faming and in better horses cattle and 
swine. 

- CoRNttuni cat ions - The Kaitakushi - Tundenhei + Fisheries - 
In 1887 - 88 the Otaru Sapporo railway was built. Mr, J.U. 
Crawford of the P.C.R.R. was selected for the work and proved himself to 
be the right man in the right place. He infused energy and tea 園 work in 
whatever he undertook. He was given five years to conplete the line. 
He told General Kuroda he would do it within two and he did it. Before 
the two years were up both passenger and freight trains were running on 
schedule ti«e between Sapporo and Otaru. The cost of the line, including 
rolling stock and stations was less than ¥23.000 per 園 ile. After he had 
established Means of transport and conmunication he star tea in to straigh- 
ten his line and improve it generally. He had with him as assistant 
engineers a Mr. Brown, of California, a most competent Man and two young 
Japanese engineers Messrs Natsumoto and Hirai, both of whom were practical- 
ly unknown at that time, but in after years were in succession chiefs of the 
Imperial Government Railways. After Crawford's return to the United 
States Hatsumoto and Hirai completed the net work of railways as they are 
practically today and which have done more for the prosperity of Hokkai- 
do than all that had been done before. Crawford' s energy and ability 



-58- 



initiated a systea of push in raiinay construction in Hokkaido that tias 
imparted to and never lost by his able successors. 

If in the beginning General Kuroda had been wore fortunate in 
the choice of his adviser capable of aaking a well fonralated plan for 
the developnent of Hokkaido and had had the assistance of a Han like 
Crawford to establish neans of coMunicatioa throughout the island* 
the story of the Kaitakushi would have been far different froa what it is. At 
that tine the leading aen of Japan had little knoHledge of conditions 
abroad and practically, none at all of foreign industries. In all govern- 
Ment undertakings foreign advisers were e^^loyed and, naturally, their 
advice was accepted alaost Hi thou t question. General Kuroda went to 
Hashing ton in search of a coapetent adviser to the Colonization 
departaennt of Hokkaido and President Grant selected General Horace Capron 
for the post. Probably the President did not realize in the least the 
responsibility he incurred in (taking the selection. Perhaps he viewed it 
only as an excellent opportunity to get rid of an occupant of an iipor- 
tant government office and make a place for sone one of ■ore political 
value. General Kuroda believed he had secured the very best aan possible 
for the post. That General Capron must be a san of a high order of intel- 
ligence and ability to have received the endorse«eat of the President of 
the United States for an iMportant position in a friradly country that had 
appealed to hi 黼 to «ake a suitable seiecticm. Instead of an able man upon 
whose judgeaient he could rely, it was not long before the officials of 
the Kaitakushi ascertained that they had secured a broken reed, an incom- 
petent nan with no conception of the natural resources of Hokkaido or of 
what was necessary for their developnent* 

He had an able staff. Dr. Anticell, a prominent chenist of 
Hashing ton; Dr. B.S. Lymann, a geologist and mining engineer of Philadelphia; 
his assistant, Mr. S. Munroe; Lieut. Cow, M,S, Day, U.S.N, as chief of the 
survey departaent [;] Mr. Boehner, a scientific and practical horticulturist 



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and Mr. Holt a thoroughly competent 議 illwright. But with such a chief 
there was no possibility of tea 矚 work. Each «an was assigned to his special 
little job and each endeavored to do it in the best of his ability. There 
was no view in coMnon. The general development of Hokkaido did not cone 
within their individual province. The pity of it! What a chance was 
lost in not sending a big brainy nan instead of Capron! I have often 
wondered if President Grant's conscience never troubled hi 禱 for the criwe 
he perpetrated upon a friendly and trusting people, Aaericans have, with 
reason, always boasted of the friendship shown by their country toMards 
Japan. Has this act of their President a friendly one? 

The gover 画 nt established Military settlement at several places 
in Hokkaido. Each man was furnished with a confortable house, heated in 
cold weather by a Russian stove, and given eight acres of land surrounamg 
his house. These men - the Tundenhei or Military settlers - with their 
families were of a very good class of pec^le and the best settlers of 
Hokkaido today are perhaps their descendants. The Tundenhei were, of course 
liable to be called out for military duty at any tine. They furnished a 
regiwent to assist in suppressing the Satstwa Rebellion in 1877. They were 
well drilled* armed and equipped. 

The land in the Hokkaido capable of cultivation is very limited in 
extent. I estimate it at no More than 10% of the whole. While of fine 
mechanical structure and easily worked it is sadly lacking in fertility 
when coMpared with the lands of the niddle and western states of the Uni- 
ted States, In the latter regions the famrer is sure of securing twenty to 
thirty crops without the use of an ounce of fertilizer on his land. In 
large areas it is not even necessary to resort to rotation. In the former 
he must have recourse to fertilizers after the second crop as a rule. 



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The asricutural products of Hokkaido will never be wore than 
sufficient to support its omd population and in the Batter of rice produc- 
tion there will, in all probability, always be a deficit. 

When I first went to Hokkaido the run of salBon up the princi- 
pal streaas was enoraous. The Ishikari run was particularly great. In 
addition to the hundreds of nets used day and night in fishing the 
river itself, there was one very big one, More than a Bile in length, used 
to fish the sea at the aouth of the river. Every Borning weather pemitting 
it was carried out in large boats which cut across the line of greatest 
run of fish and, after Making great circle, the end of it would be landed 
near the starting place. The net was so long and heavy that it required 
the entire day to iiake one haul but the catch was very large. I witnessed 
the final stages of one haul and was informed it was a very good one. The 
nuMber of salaon taken in that particular haul was over 12,000. 

The fishing rights along the coast and up the rivers were sold 
by the governaent to coMpanies over which no restraint nor control of any 
kind Has exercised. Fewer and fewer fish reached their spawning beds and 
year by year the runs decreased until the yearly catch was but a SMall 
fraction of what it had been. Too late the goveri«ent realized that 
the "goose" was about to be killed and established a fisheries coMission 
to take control. The chief of the coMission was Hr. Katsutaka I to 
an able and energetic nan. He established hatcheries on the head waters of 
the Ishikari and introduced the large spring sal»on of ttie Colimbia river 
and the king salnon of Siberia and Kanchatka. He also enforceed regula- 
tions that peraitted the native fish to run up unnolested for a part of 
the day, to their spawning grounds. The third and fourth year[s] after Mr. 
I to started his work, showed noticeable results. Instead of the 12-15 
pound native salmon, fish weight, 30 pounds or more were frequently taken. 
Enough to d^nstrate that the rivers of Hokkaido could be restocked 



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with far better fish than the native salmon if the government persisted 
and extended the work started by Mr, I to. But at the end of the fourth 
year the appropriation for the Hokkaido fisheries commission was 
withdrawn and the conMission ceased to exist. All that reaains of Mr. Ito's 
efforts are the records of a very interesting experinent. 

- Warfare in Hokkaido - 
The history of the revolution that ousted the Shogun and resto- 
red the Imperial government tells us of Adniral EnoMoto's running away 
froM Yedo Bay with the Shogun* s fleet to Hakodate where he established 
himself and proclained a republican form of governiient for Hokkaido. His 
position at Hakodate was very strong. The iMperial forces failed to dislod- 
ge him by attacks from the north and he had entire connand of the sea. 
General Kuroda conceived a plan of scaling Hakodate head froM the sea and 
taking Enomoto in Uie rear. Hakodate head is 3,000 feet high and on the 
seaside for half the distance up is almost unapproachable. Enonoto belie- 
ving his position from that side unapproachable did not even have a guard 
on the top of the head. Kuroda selected a dark night for his attenpt, 
led a picked body of men up the seemingly unscalable side of the 
mountain and down to the rear of the fort connand ing the bay. The 
garrison were taken completely by surprise and surrendered almost 
without firing a shot. This forced the surrender of the fleet. The terms 
of surrender provided that the lives of Enomoto, his officers and men 
should be spared. Enomoto and his officers were sent to Tokio and dis- 
regarding General Kuroda' s pronise to then, Enomoto and 
Generals Otori and Aral were condenned to death. Kuroda entered a strong 
protest against the sentence and declared that if it was carried out he 
would be obliged to connit harakiri to save his honor. After two years 
spent in prison the condenned men were all pardoned. When General Kuroda 



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was Made chief of the Kaitakushi he appointed Enow>to« Otori and Aral 
to important posts in that department. I uy Mention that Coant Bayashi, 
Many years afterwards aabassador to England and later ainister for 
Foreign Affairs, mas a young officer in EmMoto's coMand. As Enoaoto, Otori 
and Arai all spoke English fluently and were chanting gentlenen in every 
way they were, naturally, very popular with all the Anerican employees in 
the department. In after years I got to knoM Aduiral Enoaoto intiaately 
and valued his friendship very highly. 

In 1881 General Kuroda retired as chief of the Kaitakushi and 
was succeeded for a short tine by Admiral Count Kawamira who in turn was 
succeeded by Count, afterwards Marquis Saigo. As the Kaitakushi was 
to be abolished at the eai of 1882. the work of the department Mas confined 
to routine after the retirenent of General Kuroda. For a few years it 
was administered by the central goveriwent until Ken govemiients were 
established in Hokkaido. 

So ended the Kaitakushi. While it acconplished enough to save 
it fron being classed as a failure, it left undone so mich that «ight have 
been acconplished that it cannot be classed as a success. The ten best 
years of my life were spent in its service. Little to 矚 y personal advantage 
but I treasure the thought that they were not altogether uselessly wasted 
in the service of the people of Japan whom I had learned to esteen so highly. 

At the expiration of my term of service His Iiiperial Majesty 
was pleased to confer upon me the order of the fifth class of the Rising 
Sun in recognition of my services. 

In December 1882 I left Hokkaido with ny wife and daughter 
spending the winter in Tokio and in visiting places of interest which in 



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those days were, by no means as easy of access as they are today. I found 
the Tokio Club newly established in the RokuMeikan and was elected a 
menber there of. There I made hosts of friends with whom I was intinately 
associated in after years. 

- Vacation in Anerica - 

After many consultations with ny wife it was decided that I 
should go to Anerica with our daughter Helen, then five years of age, leave 
her with my parents and sisters and if possible Rake a hone where I could 
bring ny wife later on. Helen and I were received at ho«e with affectiona- 
te welcome, not only by my own people but also by our nany relatives, all 
still living at the old places* Helen soon became the pet of the fa«ily 
and to me it was delightful to meet then all again. In the beginning 
there was nothing to mar the joy of it, but in a short time I began to 
realize that I was not the sane nan that had left then ten years before. 
That the little place amongst then that I had always thought of as my own 
no longer existed or, rather, that the man who filled it so nicely ten years 
before was not the sane as he who came back to clai 觀 it* The boys and 
girls with whom I had associated from childhood were middle aged people 
with families of their own and the kids I had left in short skirts and 
trousers were filling the places I had filled. While enjoying their 
affection I felt that, of ny own Raking, I was a stranger a 顯 ong then. 

My advice to any young man is: Never leave your own country with 
the idea of making a permanent career in a foreign land with the intention 
of returning home some day to enjoy the fruits of it. His love of coun- 
try nay renain unimpaired, his glory in its progress as keen as when he 
left it. In fact, I believe the exile's interest in his country's well 

I being is, as a 

rule, keener than that of the resident who accepts whatever comes as a 
matter of course. But he who has lived long abroad will, on his return, 
Bliss many little things that have become part of his life. He left before 



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his habits had becoae fixed, when he returns he finds he cannot fit hiaself 
in with what is to hi 騰 a new condition of things. 

In Way 1883 I went west spending the suiwer in Oregon, Washing- 
ton, Idaho and Montana. After spending soae tine at Portland, Seattle and 
Tacona and visiting the limber region of Puget Sound, I aa^le Spokane Falls 
ny headquarters, Making frequent visits fro« there throu^ the surrounding 
country. As far north as the British Columbia line and as far away in 
other directions, covering a great part of the Magnificent faming country 
that was sparcely settled then but the best lands had been all pretty 
well pre aipied. I nade Host of these trips by "buck board*. The greater 
part of the tine I canped out as houses were few and far between and I 
felt more independent and just as coaf or table with my cm outfit. 
It never rains in that vast region fron May until November. Wherever wood* 
water and grass are to be had the traveller has his night's lodging. He 
stakes out or hobbles his horses, wakes his fire, cooks his bacon if nothing 
better is in the larder, boils his coffee, rolls hinself in his blanket and 
sleeps as he never slept under a roof. One night, in what is called the 
'big bend country 霄 I nade canp on a snail tributary of the ColuMbia. 
Shortly afterwards another party in a spring wagon, located for the night 
quite near ne. After I had finished ny supper I strolled over to «ake 
a call. Much to my surprise I found the outfit consisted of two very nice 
looking young women. I soon ascertained that they were well educated, well 
brought up and very intelligent. They were on a prospecting trip in search 
of un located land where they could locate a hone for thenselves. Fhey 
knew the west well and said they felt perfectly safe. Wen in that country, 
no natter how bad in other respects, rarely Holest woiien. They were well 
supplied with shooting irons also, which no doubt, they knew how to use. 
They gave ne a cup of their coffee which I found ever so mich better 



-65- 



than ny own. In return I brought tbem some prairie chickens I had shot and 
returned to my own fire side. 

- Our Trip to Loonlake - 
In company with a cowboy of decidedly bad manners and a young 
nan fro« the east I nade a trip to Loons lake, [sic] a fine sheet of water 
about ten miles in length by five broad* The road to Ft Colville passes by 
the western end of the lake. It is bounded on the north and south by 
precipitous and very high Mountains. We were informed by an Englishnan> the 
first white nan that had ever be^ there, that at the eastern end there ms 
a valley of magnificent land which had not yet been surveyed. Hr. Absolen, 
our infomant, said he had got to this garden spot by crossing the Moun- 
tains to the north of the lake. That although the climbing in places was 
pretty tough, he had got over in one day without very great difficulty. So 
we three hired a two horse spring wagon and driver and started one morning 
in July, for Loonlake, seventy Riles north from Spokane Falls, The road was 
good and we made camp on the lake before dark. The next morning we had a 
look at those mountains and realised we were in for about the toughest 
job we had ever undertaken. He had failed to take into account the fact 
that Mr, Absolea was a first class athlete. He had cone out to Australia 
as one of England's eleven to trim the colonists conception of themselves 
as cricketers and had acconplished the job properly. Absolem was also a 
mountaineer of note. He never saw a high mountain that he did not want 
to climb to the very top and generally did. The cow boy and self were all 
there on horseback but were poor infantry on rough country. As for the 
young man with us he was just a young nan froM the east, perhaps a good 
average there but a poor one where he found hiwself . We started up the 
mountain and in less than an hour we found ourselves in woeful trouble. 
Instead of making for the highest ridge and following it as Absolem did, 
we attenpted a short cut by cutting across the slope about half way up. 
We found that slope a succession of spurs and deep ravines running 



-66- 



down the lake and covered with the Most treaendous groHth of tiaber I had 
ever seen. The ravines were so clogged with fallen trees that, as a rule, 
we could only cross by clinbing along the body of sone Monstrous pine cedar, 
or redwood, twenty feet or w>re froa the bottoH. In one such crossing we 
started up a large cinnaaon bear. Hy Hinchester was on ay back but owing 
to the awkward position we were in, failed to get a shot. The first day, we 
possibly Made three 議 iles froii our starting point. It was the 19th of July, 
•y birthday, and although m were over 7,000 feet above the sea it had been 
very wam during the day, probably betHeen 90 and 100 F.H. in the 鷗 iddle of 
the day. As soon as the sun disappeared the teaperature fell at a 
wonderful rate. We aade cai^ in a ravine and built. a rousing fire but 
towards norning mre shivering from the cold* I found My blanket, a 
snail one, covered with frost. Fortunately for us we found the woods alive 
with coveys of young grouse of three varieties* One variety knoum out 
there as the blue grouse is a Magnificent bird, as large as a chicken 
when full grofffn. The ruffed grouse were in great ntwbers and lastly there 
were "fool hen* that one can frequently knock over with a stick. During 
the day we had shot as Many of these birds as we required. They were so 
tame we got all we wanted with our revolvers. When flushed froB the ground 
they would nake for the lowest branches of the nearest tree and allow us 
to approach with t 枕 or twenty feet before making another nove. He roasted 
as Many of then as we could eat over our fire with strips of bacon as 
seasoning. The second day was a repetition of the first. We camped in 
another ravine, had «ore grouse but biscuits were all gone and bacon about 
finished. The third day we entered the pronised land about dark. Grouse 
plentiful but absolutely nothing else. He were obliged to eat then without 
salt, but had plenty of fine drinking tuater to wash then down with. The «anna 
was becoMing scNuewhat Monotonous. When we entered the valley we saw a drove 
of deer within a quarter of a mile. I tried to stalk then but without 
success. With heavy boots on what else could one expect? The next 



-67- 



day we explored our valley. It was a beautiful place of 2,000 or 3,000 acres 
in extent, dry but well watered and covered with the finest grass I ever 
saw outside of Kentucky or Ohio. It was alive with deer, elk, and judging 
frcM the size of the foot prints, reindeer also. But we Here by this tiae 
too anxious to get back to the supplies of our wagon to waste tine in 
trying for specimens. It was then as it is today, doubtless, a beautiful 
spot. But the cold night we spent in 画 id July told us that its sumers 
■ust be too short for agricultural purposes and its winters very severe 
with 黼 uch snow. He saw signs of Indian encaqwents but there were none 
there at the time of our visit. Ne all sHore we would never go over these 
Mountains again and decided to try the lake shore going bade. We found 
this route covaratively easy. Nith the exception of a few spurs that 
Me Here obliged to cross nfe found the shore practicable all the way. We 
were often obliged to wade, often pretty deep, but that Has a delightful 
exchange for those horrid ravines. He started early fro* the valley and 
Made our wagon before dark, (tar driver sam us co«ing a long way off and 
knew what we would want when Me got in. He had ready for us such a feast 
as I have seldcw enjoyed. Fine trout he had caught, haM and biscuit 
and tinned things and best of all, lots of coffee. I had had no tiling to 
snoke for two days and had been reduced to cheMing plug of which our cow 
boy was well supplied. Any saoker can realize «y delight on finding a 
box of cigars I had left in my grip intact. 

- Our Visit to Deer Lod^e 一 
About August 1st Captain Blakiston joined ne at Spokane. He had 
COM across fro* Hokodate in a sailing vessel and had occupied his tiae 
in taking the teverature of the sea several tiaes every day in order to 
deteniine the flow of currents north along the Asiatic coast and south 
down the coast of Aaerica. His observations deaonstrated that the Kurosiwo 
or Black Current could have no influence whatever upon the cliaate of the 



-68- 



Pacific Coast as it is generally supposed to have. The Mild cliMate of 
that coast mas entirely due to the southerly Minds fon the Pacific that 
prevailed during the winter aonths. These winds are knom in the westem 
states and Canada as the Chencok [sic] winds. He sprat August in Idaho and 
Montana visiting the unsettled regions of those states. At that iiwe the 
Northern Pacific railnay was nearing coiQtleticm* Mien m reached the Paci- 
fic end of it tiiere was a gap of one hundred 觀 iles betHeen that end and 
the eastern terainus at Deer Lodge in Montana. He traveled across this 
gap partly by wagon but over the last part, which is very wmntainous and 
Mas being tunneled, <m foot. He sprat tuo days at Deer Lodge which at that 
tiae was considered tbe Horst town in the United States. Originally it 
Mas a Mining caap. Hhen the teninus of the N.P. railmy Mas tavorarily 
established tiiere gaablers, cow boys and toughs of all kinds i locked in and 
the gun Has the law. The southern part of the towi Has all gaud)liiig dens 
saloons and dance halls. Blakiston and I spent an evening in this part of 
the torn. He wanted to see for ourselves how the frequenters 
conducted theaselves. Alaost every «an we aet, and there seeved to be 
thousands of thea, Has a walking ars«ial> but as a rule very quiet in 
speech and aanner. They seeaed to have a code of their own in Mhich the 
proper answer to bluster and abuse was a pistol shot. Too ntcb bad 
whisky was the greater cause of a row, a Misunderstanding, lAidi were 
frequently followed by funerals the next «orning« He visited several 
gambling rooms all of which were orderly. We saw hundreds of wen playing 
faro, poker, roulette and other games. So far as we observed they cashea in 
their chips or accepted their losses Hithout a word. But we were told wny 
shootings occurred. Hhen only two Here engaged both were, frequently 
subjects for the coroner next day. He Here entirely unaolested* Perhaps 
because He Minded our own business, possibly because m did not look like 
profitable chickens to pluck. Shortly after our visit ttie two ends of the 



-69- 



N.P, railtny Here joined. The railway sen «iere scattered and the Money 
that aade the booa at Deer Lodge was no longer to be had. The gasblers 
Moved to Bore inviting fields and the urslial and his deputies got the 
upper hand with the toughs and Hi thin a short tiae Deer Lodge becaae an 
orderly, law abiding town. 

ProM Deer Lodge we visited Hel 棚 and near that place a large 
hydraulic gold Mining plant lAere Mountains of earth were washed dom into 
f lanes by enomous jets of Nater froa eight inch pipes with a lead of 300 
feet and four inch nozzels. He witnessed a cleanup after a three days run 
and were told it was a good one. Certainly the aaount of gold 
collected froa the fluae i«as very valuable* 

- The Geysers - Yellowstone Park - 

Fron Helena we went to Yellowstone Park. At Livingstone we 
hired an outfit consisting of a two horse wagon, extra riding horse and 
a driver. The latter was also our guide and soon beacae our friend* He 
proved hiaself to be one of the best of thousands of splendid plain [s] Men to 
be found at that ti«e. There was no guile in him. Open, free and resource- 
ful he Has full of huaor and had a store of anecdotes that he Nould 
relate in the quaint lingo of the west 加 t HCHild wake us chuckle in our 
canp fire sle^« He was the kind of man that Blakiston deli ゆ ted in. It 
Mas fine to note the tens of absolute equality upon Mhich the soaeiAat 
stern old veteran of the Criaea accepted his friend of the plains, knd the 
affectionate care shorn by the latter for the elderly Englishaan in Nhooi 
he recognized a man aaong «en, tias equally pleasing. Be was with us during 
tNO weeks of caap life and I an sure it was a wench for all when we 
parted. At the entrance of tiie park we stopped at an outfitting place 
consisting of a few tents. As m entered tiie place we passed by a young 
■an on horseback Nho was having a rather heated conversation with 
anotiier aan, a GOTun, on foot. He had been in the store but a few ninutes 
Mhen He beard a pistol shot. He ran out and found the young aan lying on 



-70- 



the ground. He tried to raise him up but be died in our am. The bullet 
froB a heavy colt had passed entirely through bis chest. He sam his 
assailant running as fast as he could for so«e ti 纏 ber land. 

At that tiae there Mere no hotels in the park* The Ifanoth [sic] 
Springs Hotel, near the entrance, ms building and one wing of it so near 
finished that quite a nmber of guests could be very coafortably 
accoModated. He reached the hotel in the evening and although 
Mr. Hatch bad arrived the day before with a large party of ladies and 
gentleaen fro« New York, were given very comfortable quarters. After s 卿 per 
quite a party rode up. Aaongst the« we recognized the store keeper 
froM idKM we had obtained our s 卿 lies that aorning. Re inforaed m that 

they Here after tiiat Dutclnan and if m desired to see a nedc tie 

party He aight have that pleasure by joining the«« Ne aade our excuses 
and spent a very pleasant evening with soae of the guests of the hotel 
instead. One of the «ost noticeable of these was U.S. Senator Beck of 
Kentucky. The Senator had that day visited the Norris geyser basin about 
twenty 矚 iles fro« the hotel. The Norris basin is filled with snail 
bad saelling mid geysers not at all interesting Nhen compared to the 
great upper fields. Senator Beck expressed hivself as quite satisfied with 
Mhat be bad seen and intended returning east next Moniing* He said all the geysers 
big and little, worked on the save principle. In fact the force that caused 
a tea kettle to boil over was identical Mith that idiich caused the Sheri- 
dan geyser to tiiroH a col 画 of water forty feet in dianeter. three hundred 
and fifty feet in the air and hold it pulsing up and dom for hours at a 
tiae. The learned Senator said he had endured a very uncoaf or table ride 
of tuenty 黼 iles to see sev^al seysers that spoated tMenty or wore feet 
high, that he was particularly satisfied with lAat he had seen and was 
not at all disposed to go thirty 黼 iles further to see the sam kind of 



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thing spout a thousand times as mich hot water ten tiaes higher. As for the 
falls of the Yellow Stone and the Canyon below, the swe things m a 
snller scale Mere to be seen all about the Haaoth Springs Hotel. As for 
hi 画 he Mas not going one Mile further away froa a railiiay than he then 
was to see all the geysers, canyons and water falls, not only in VelloM 
Stone Park but in the entire United States of Aaerica. 

We spent the next day at the Ha«oth Springs and then »ade our 
start to see the park proper. A few aile oat froM the springs we met a 
couple of trappers • They had a two horse covered wagons and an extra 
riding horse as an outfit. They were about the toughest looking pair of 
citizens I had ever seen. They infonned us they had inside a Dutchaan 
wanted for killing a young fellow near the springs and were then on their 
May to band over the «an and get the reward, $100, offered by the 
sheriff of Livingston. Our driver told thea he rather guessed they had 
better travel some other road than the one they were then folloHing if 
Uiey expected to get their un to Livingston with an unbroken neck. Our 
hairy friends rauirked that they redcnoened they Hight be able to stand 
off any gang that aight be hanging around the springs. To which our 
driver replied that he bad noticed about fifty gents lAo were accus toned 
to having their own nay. banging aroond Nhen he left, but if they felt 
equal to the job he wished them good luck and good norning. "Hold on a 
second stranger, as you seen to knoM sonething about these parts, perhaps you 
could suggest a More healthy road to Livingston than this here one seems 
to be just at this present acMient". Our driver pointed out with his Mbip 
to the right and said, "The trail over there will lead you out," and left then 
without another word. After m had driven on for a short distance he 
said: [つ I just had to show them a my out, but I just hope to God the vigi- 
lantes are on tiie look out and will get ti» Dutchman yet." He spent a [sic] 



-72- 



delightful ten days in the park, caaped for several nights 
within one hundred yards of the "Old Faitiiful*. Not the largest by any 
■eans but one of the aost beautiful of all the geysers. The absolute 
regularity with Nhich it erupts every 62 or 63 Minutes aakes it the aost 
satisfactory. While Me Mere there it Mas wxHiIigbt. The great coliun of 
steaaing Mater pulsing up until it reached a height of 120 or aore feet 
was indescribably beautiful in the soft light of the full mm. While «e 
Mere there President Arthur, escorted by General Phil Sierid«) with a 
conpany of cavalry and one hundred Indian scouts, caae in and awle caap 
quite near us. 

FroH the geysers we went on to the falls of the Yellow Stone, 
700 feet in height and spent two days viewing the canyon below tiie falls, 
one of the nature's aost beautiful things. No pen nor brush can do it justice. 
The longer one lingers near it the greater is the reluctance to leave it. 
On the Nest^ side of the park Me took leave of our driver friend who had 
bem with us for nearly two weeks and engaged a large spring wagon with 
four horses to take us over the continental divide separating the head 
waters of the Hissoari floHing east and south to the gulf of Mexico fro* 
the Maters of the &iake river floNing to Pacific. The divide between 
the waters flowing east and nest is. apparently a flat plain. Two saall 
streams within fifty yards of each otiier are pointed out. One flows to the 
Missouri, the other to the Snake river. A few 覼1168 further west Henry's 
Lake is reached. It is about fifty 觀 iles fro* the park and fifty ailes fro« 
Beaver canon Idaho. It is a large Neil-mtered plain trfiere, perhaps, 
the finest trout fishing in tiie world was to be had at the tiae we passed 
throng. Ne spent tMO days at a hunters caap to oyoy the fishing and see 
the great herds of elk, black and white tailed deer. In the rougher 
Mountainous country big horns Mere plentiful at that ti»e. Fro* an ele- 
vated spot thousands of heads of gaae Here in sight. The plain is about 



-73- 

8,000 feet above the sea and the tine between ice and ice is only about 
three Months. At the ti»e I speak of, it mas a sportsaan' s paradise. I 
have heard that for years since then there is scarcely a head of gane to 
be seen Hi thin a day's ride and instead of trout running fron two and one 
half pound to five pounds in weight, the fisheman is satisfied with 
one half to a pound. 

- The HorMons - 

At Beaver canyon we struck the Utah Northern railway and took 
train for the east via Salt Lake city. We spent tMo days in seeing ihe city 
of the Honons and the splendid work of reclaaation in nhat ai^ieared to 
be a baiTOi sage brush desert before they brought water to nake it a 
veritable garden. The Horaoii settleaents froM Idaho south, for several 
hundreds of niles, are subject to church discipline and goveriwent, and in 
ibeiT prosperous and clean Mell to do appearance, present a wcmderful 
contrast of superiority over the few gentile villages that are seen. In 
the foner everything is clean, prosperous and the people Mell behaved. In 
the latter filth and squalor and ruffianly Manners* I a 麵 writing of 
nearly forty years ago and conditions May have changed greatly since then. 
Let us hope that the gentile settlers have swroached their unholy 
nei ゆ bors soMwhat in the ordinary decencies of life. 

From Salt Lake He went directly to the old ho«e in Ohio where 
fathers Mother, brothers and sisters were all still alive and well. I 
found 矚 y daughter Helen ffK>i!derfully inproved in the six Months since 
I left her. She had alnost entirely forgotten her Japanese and spoke 
English as fluently as the ordinary run of youngsters of her age* Blakis- 
ton had planned to go to England after naking us a short visit but Has so 
Much pleased mib the people and life in central Ohio that he postponed 
his departure for a mootb or aore* In fact he did not leave us until 
he had persuaded my second eldest sister to becoae Hrs. Blakiston. On his 
return fnw England about a year later they were urried and lived a 



-74- 



happy life in New Hexico until he died a fen years later. 

As for Myself I had seen aany places in the north west where I 
would have been glad to begin a new life but I dared not take my wife 
there. The change from Japan to the back woods of the north Nest would 
have been too great. 

Diplowatic Career, 
A fortunate circuMstance brought about the creation by the U.S. 
Congress of the posts of Second Secretary of Legation for the Tokio and 
Peking Legations and President Arthur was good enough to appoint ae to 
Tokio and Hr. Bockhill to Peking. So in the spring of 1884 I left the U.S. 
the seccmd time for Japan to take up a post for lAich I was about as 
poorly qualified by previous training as any poor aortal could very well 
be. But I detervined to fit ayself for the new reqaireaents if it were 
possible to do so. I soon found that the first requisite Mas to ascertain 
Hhat the other fellows were doing and what they were doing it for. To 
■ake friends wherever possible, to put on no side at all but to defer, 
lAen possible, to those who did. To get to knom every detail of Court 
etiquette in order to be of use to a neit chief on arrival and to knoN every 
one he Has likely to aeet and to keep bim posted in regard to social 
duties and engageaents. To be always ready with our views on ii^nrtant 
aatters when asked to give then but to be shy of volunteering the* without 
very grave or urgait reasons for doing so. To so absolutely gain the 
confidence of your chief that be would always call for your views on any 
question if only to ascertain if it has been fully omsidered. I was very 
fortunate from the beginning in 矚 y relations with the several chiefs under 
whoa I served. Her I^»erial Majesty the Empress was pleased to receive 
ay wife very kindly, thus establishing her position with the Court ladies 



-75- 



and the higher circles of Tokio society. Her friendly relations with the 
ladies of Tokio gave «e a footing in the social life of a class of Japa- 
nese that it would have been difficult, otherwise, to have obtained. She, who 
had been my comrade through uny years of Hokkaido life Hhich would have 
been indeed lonely without her, adopted the requirenents of Court etiquette 
and the laws of Tokio society seeningly without effort. In 1888 she beca- 
■e ill and died in October of tiiat year. For aonths after I could take 
but, little interest in life and had it not been for the kind support 
and syapathy of Mr. Mansfield, secretary of legaticm and son- in- law to 
Nr. Hubbard, then 鶴 inister, I should have resigned my post and returned to 
Anerica. But ti«e the great healer did its work and «y interest in 
Japan, its people and «y omnection Kith tiien. revived and I rauined at 園 y 
post. 

Mr. Hubbard nas succeeded by Wr. Swift of California in 1889 and 
the same year I was appointed secretary of legation by Mr. Harrison, tiien 
President. The spring of 1890 Mr. Swift died suddenly and for eithteen 
wmths I was Charge d* Affaires until 1891 when Br. Cooabs of California was 
appointed 矚 inister and took diarge the sane autum. Mr. Cleveland was 
again elected President in 1892 and after his inauguration in 1893 
appointed me Minister to Japan. I iMiediately applied for leave of 
absence to visit Aaerica and within ten days after my appointvent left 
Tdcio in order to relieve Mr. Coonbs of the aibarrassMent of having his 
successor in Tokio before he was pr^)ared to leave. My appointHent had 
cone not only as a surprise to hi 黼 but to m also. Ifcile I knew that 
certain powerful influences were working for we in Anerica I did not 
believe they Mere strong enough to overcome the political pressure that 
delegations fro« California and Pennsylvania were exerting to secure the 
place for tbeir respective states: Perhaps the President, not wishing 



-76- 



to offend either one of these parties by appointing the candidate of 
either, decided to sake an appoinUient entirely outside of politics and 
selected we on recoMendations he had received of my fitness for the post 
and on my record in the department of state. However that say be I Nent 
to A«erica> was cordially received by the President and Judge Greshaa, then 
Secreatary of State and spent a delightful Month with Ky daughter, tiien a 
girl of fifte^ and Hith ay w>ther> brothers and sisters. Hy father had 
died two years before. 

So I left hone the tiiird txm for Japan but under what changed 
conditions. Before I had gone alaost as an adventurer, I now weat as the 
envoy of ay country to the highest post that an Aaerican could, at that 
tiae, fill abroad. During my term of four years as ■inister my relations 
with the Japanese authorities and a hundred of others in private life were 
of the Bost cordial nature and I have reason to believe served to 
strengthen the good and friendly relations already existing between the 
two countries. 

- The Foreign Mode in Tokio - 
But I u anticipating. Fron 1885, everything foreign was the 
rage at Court and on the social life of Tc^io. Entertainaeats of all kinds 
in foreign style were the thing. Balls, fancy dress and plain were of 
weekly occurrece. Garden parties and receptions were alaost of isicj aaily 
affairs. Greatly to be regretted the costiwe of the Court ladies was 
changed. The old beautiful court dress that added so wicb to the chara of 
the Cherry Blosson and Qirysanthemu garden parties, gave place to costuaes 
froM Paris, for those who could afford it and to horrid imitations for 
those who could not. The Buto-kai or society for the acquiraient of 
European forws of Court etiquette was organized. It had a ■e«berships of 
perhaps 200 and set titice a nonth at the RokineikMan. Countess, afterwards 
Princess, I to Mas its president; Marchioness Nabeshiaa. Countess Inouye, 



-77- 



Countess Toda, and in fact all the ladies and gentleaan that foraed the 
social life of Tokio at that tine were active aeabers. A few foreigners we- 
re admitted to Meabership. Baroness Sannoniya and Miss Hayes were aeMbers. 
My wife Mas a metA&r and I was adaitted to «e«bership on her account, I 
presune, as I never was particularly omavental at such gatherings. The 
recepti<His began at about 9 o'clock in the evraing by Countess I to who 
Mould be seated on a raised dais. She would be approached in the Manner 
prescribed at Court and after reception the ■eabers Nould withdraM from the 
presence in the sase fonul my, Court etiquette being observed throughout. 
After the reception, dancing Mould be in order. A 難 ilitary band furnished 
excellent Music* About 11:30 p.m. »i excellent cold supper Mas served ending 
the function at 黼 idnight* 

The Buto-kai introduced so aany innovations into the social 
observances that had hitherto governed the relations between young people 
of opposite sex that it was difficult for then to decide where the 
requirements of deconn ended and iflaodesty began. For instance, until 
then it had always been considered indelicate for young aen and HOKn, 
not very closely connected, to meet and associate freely and faailiarly 
together. It would have been highly iBproper for a young lady to take the 
hand of a strange young man and as for the contact required in roond dances 
the idea of such a thing was absolutely indecent. Yet, such Mas the extreme 
desire to i 颺 itate everything foreign in fashion and deconn that the 
training and traditions of Japanese ladies and gentleaen for generations 
seemed to be at least ignored if not forgotten. Fortunately the evils 
resulting from the foolishly conceived and badly governed neetings of 
the Buto-kai Mere so qttidcly recognized by the exalted personages who had 
in their ill advised desire to do away with old Japan and Europeanize the 
country as quickly as possible, tiiat its asetiags nere discontinued 
within less than a year from their beginning. There were another very 



-78- 



potent reason why foreign social ways and nodes of life should not take 
the place in a large degree of the old established customs of Japan. 
That was the Matter of expense. The cost of waintaining Japanese establish- 
nents as they were, and are, aust continue as a Matter of course. To add the 
cost of foreign establishnents of even nodes t dimensions would have entai- 
led an increased expense that even the wealthiest would have found eabar- 
ra^ng. 

So the excessive craze for everything foreign that was at its 
zenith about 1886 began to decline and the beauties of their own old 
custoRS, cerenonies and dress together with the fitness of old social 
restraints for the govenuient of Japanese social life began to re-assert 
itself. Comon sense began to take control in place of one of those 
extraordinary aental delusions that, for a tine, aay lead a people into the 
greatest folly. 

Unfortunately one folly had been consuimated that could not be 
rectified. The substitution for the beautiful old court costume of the 
ugly, ever changing fashions of dress of Europe. Oh! The pity of it! 
To change the magnificent cos tunes that adorned the ladies of the Court 
and lent an added dignity and beauty to every occasion on which they 
appeared, for the female rai»ent of the west, was an unforgivable crime 
against good taste. Had there been a reason of state for the change it 
飜 ight have been accepted with sorrow as unavoidable, but there was no 
reason for it at all. It was a part of the work of young fools who had 
been sent abroad to study western ways and manners ana m the glawour and 
glitter of what they saw becaae ashaned of their own country and of 
whatever it differed fros what was considered the proper thing in the 
west. It was a tiae when for fear of sissing soMe thing desirable for then 



-79- 



to secure fron the west the Japanese seened ready to accept all that was 
foreign and discard whatever had been theirs for thousands of years. They 
had not yet found their place under the sun and were reaching out in all 
directions for a rock upon which to establish thevselves. It was a tiine 
when Japan Mas not seriously considered by Europe or America. They were 
not serious conpetitors in trade, extra territoriality was in full force; an 
European or American could connit the Most aboninable crime without 
liability to Japanese law. The Japanese police could apprehend hin, it is 
true, but only to hand him over to the authorities of his own country for 
trial and punishnent. Militarily speaking they were bound hand and foot. 
Being so advantageously situated fron a western point of view, they were 
petted and nade mich of. What a nice polite people they were! Hon chaning 
in their hospitality! What lovely scenery! What lovely works of art and 
how cheap! But as for recognizing the progress Made by Japan in changes of 
governnent to meet the requirements of the west, her judiciary, her laws and 
adiiinistration there of, the excellence of which were freely recognized, 
there was nothing done for wore than ten years after the United States had 
practically admitted that the time for the abolition of extra- territo- 
riality had cone. And we who pride ourselves upon our justice to all 
nen, on our readiness to protect the ttfeak fron the strong, could not see 
our way to the doing of a simple act of justice to Japan until Great 
Britain and the European powers were prepared to do likewise. In our boas- 
ted acts of generosity to Japan can we point to one where a sacrifice of 
value was Made on our part? It is true that in this respect we have a bet- 
ter record than the rest of the world, but none of the other great powers 
have, so far as I can reveaber, pretended to be guided by anything but self 
interest in their dealings with this country. 

- I 鴯 igration Question - 
It was not after the Chinese and then the Russian war that the 
western world began to take Japan seriously. Since her success in 



-80- 



those wars she has ceased to be the charging youth with beautiful nanners 
and works of art with whom it is delightful to visit and exchange 
coffipliaients and expressions of admiration. She has found her place and in 
all Matters pertaining to the east nust be recknoned with. Great 
Britain recognized this years ago and Bade Japan her ally. We, instead 
of doing the sane allowed a lot of California gas bags to «ake endless 
trouble and endanger the peaceful developnent of the welfare of our own 
country and the peoples of the east. There is no reason Nbatever for the 
slightest feeling of ill will between the peoples of the two countries. 
The i 麵 igration question has been practically solved for years. If the 
good citizens of California see fit to confiscate the property of the few 
thousand Japanese already settled aaong then and show the saae spirit of 
toleration towards then that the Turk exhibits towards the Armenian, it 
is a natter for the enlightened people of the United States to detemine 
whether such treatment of the helpless stranger within their gates is 
consistent with their honor or not. It is within the power of the United 
States to act as she sees fit in regard to Asiatics or any other people 
admitted as residents or visitors. But unless she uses that power and 
right generously and stands ready to protect the meanest stranger within 
her borders fron the brutal demands of demagogues who seem to be as free 
of coamon sense as they are of all feeling of national honor, then let this 
blatant sentinental cant of love of justice, desire to benefit 
hunanity, love of freedom and equality anong «en. of which we have heard 
so Much during the past few years, cease as it only proclaims us a nation 
of hypocrites and liars. 

It seens to be the general belief in Aaerica, Australia and Cana- 
da that if the bars were down, the entire Japanese population of 60,000,000 
people would be ready to emigrate to one or all of those favored lands. 



-81- 



Hhereas, as a natter of fact, the going of every able bodied man or woRian 
fron this country is a distinct loss to Japan. Japan is not over populated, 
the demand for labor today that cannot be filled shows that there is 
ample room for all and will be for generations to cone. There is a growing 
belief among the leading men of Japan that the policy of this governnent 
should be to discourage emigration and be ready to conbat the deaand for 
Japanese labor that is certain to come from abroad within the next few 
years. There is work to do for every able bodied nan and woHan in Japan. 
In the developnent of her shipping, her home industries and aanufactures 
and her foreign trade, Japan has urgent need of everyone of her subjects. 
This talk of over popoulation and the necessity of finding a place where 
the surplus nay go is utter nonsense. They are everyone of then needed 
at home. The constantly increasing demand for labor in the new industries 
that are springing up in all parts of the country anply proves this. Not 
only are men in demand but women and children can find employment at wages 
not dreamed of a few years ago. To such a degree has this gone that the 
government has found it necessary to step in and regulate the limit of 
child labor. There is and always will be a venturesone class of young 
Japanese that alluring reports of fortunes to be gathered abroad will indu- 
ce to leave their hones to better their conditions in life. But the nuMber 
of this class is an exceedingly small portion of the whole and as the 
denand for their services at home increases, the number of would be 
emigrants must decrease. Fifty years ago the population of Japan was 
about 30, 鼠 000, whereas today it is nore than double that niwber. 
Economically speaking, the country was over populated fifty years ago in the 
sense that the labor of the country was far in excess of the industrial 
deaand. whereas the industrial denand today is far in excess of the supply 
of labor. There is every indication that industrial developiieiit in Japan 
will continue to increase at a far more rapid rate than the population 



-82- 



of the country. If I an correct in this assertion it is absurd to say 
Japan is overpopulated. I renember taking part in a discussion about thirty 
years ago, when the entire trade of Japan, exports and i 覼 ports, had reached 
the yearly value of about $75,000*000, if that was not about the limit that 
could be reasonably expected. The najority of foreigners resident here 
seened to be decidedly of the opinion that it was. They asked where the 
increased production was to cone froa? And if there was no increased 
production, how could there be increased exports or neans to buy wore 
imports than the country was then taking? At that tine it was difficult 
to denonstrate that the resources of the country were not fully developed 
but today we see that since that tine the foreign trade of the country 
has developed fron $75.000.000 to $500,000,000. The save conditions should 
obtain in China, but ■isgovernnent and oppression of the people in that 
country for generations has so coapletely killed the national spirit of 
the nasses that a re- generation of China seens to be an alios t hopeless 
proposition for nany generations to cove. 

- The Denocratic Idea in Japan - 
It seems to nie thai where Englisluien and Americans utterly fail to 
understand the difference in thought between the east and the west 
is clearly shown in their conception of a popular form of governe«nt and 
the oriental conception of the same thing. In Japan where individual 
liberty and equality under the law is fully recognized, in practice and 
spirit the feudal systea of class distinction is also as fully recognized 
today as it was fifty years ago. The safety of Japan* s social organization 
is dependent upon ihe Maintenance of class distinction. The basis of 
govenwent, of law and order, is the recognition of the suprene authority 
of the EMperor. His will mist be suprene. The people's representatives in 
the Diet exercise certain functions of govenwent delegated to the« by the 
Emperor. But it should not be forgotten that delegated authority say. at 



-83- 



any time, be recalled. There is no such thing as party governaent in Japan 
as it is understood in the United States and Great Britain. The so called 
parties here, are but cliques. The followers of prominent political Men who 
by their ability have gained proninence as advocates of change of policy 
in administration. The country is governed by the Enperor and his 
advisers. The genro or Council of elder statesnen behind the Throne that 
appear so proninently whenever a serious crisis presents itself, are the 
real government of Japan and also its safety. There has never been the 
least dissatisfaction exhibited by the great nass of the people of Japan 
towards the governiient furnished then by the supreme control power, which, 
in its relation with the people, has always been benevolent and paternal. 
Go where one will in Japan no dissatisfaction with the fom of govemnent 
will be heard expressed by the masses. Criticism enough of the abominable 
administration of local affairs which are indeed sadly in need of impro- 
vement, will be heard, but no expression of dissatisfaciton with his indi- 
vidual status as a Japanese subject will be heard. This outcry for univer- 
sal suffrage is the work of politicians, mischievous agitators and misgui- 
ded students with the vaguest notion regarding suffrage, universal or limi- 
ted. The existing forw of governnent in Japan is the outcome of thousands 
of years of education and practice* The people have become so deeply 
imbued with its requirenents that it has become a part of their religion - 
and unquestioned guide in their dealings with others and in what they 
believe to be their individual rights. Their former loyalty to their secu- 
lar feudal lord and adoration of their spiritual lord the Mikado were, 
by the restoration Merged into an individual loyalty to the Enperor that 
occupies a paraaount place over any mere preference for political party or 
leader. The feudal spirit that was divided ainong many daiaios has becone 
united in a national spirit that is still as feudal in character as it was 



善 



sixty years ago. The fealty has become united not changed. I do not nean 
to say that the love and respect of the people for their fomer lords has 
disappeared, far fron it, next to their supreme devotion to the Eaperor, 
their esteea and respect for the fanily of their feudal lord cones next. 
The social fabric of Japan is coowiunistic in its organization. 
Individuality is coapletely lost in the fanily authority. The paternal 
authority is recognized by the children as long as the parents live. 
While by Japanese law a child reaches Maturity at the age of twenty and 
at that age becones fully responsible to the state for his or her acts 
and is free to decide for thenselves in all natters pertaining to their 
manhood or woaanhood» as a natter of fact the faaily authority is so 
fully recognized that few Japanese have the courage or inclination to 
dispute it. Marriages are arranged by the faaily and while it is seemingly 
easy to obtain a divorce, it is, as a aatter of fact, alaost impossible to 
do so witiiout the consent of the fanily council unless the recalcitrant 
party is fully prepared to accept the full displeasure of the faaily 
authority. The fanily organization is More complete in the rural dis- 
tricts where, as a rule, the subvillages are so closely related by inter- 
narriage that they are all of one or two recognized faailies governed by 
heads and council. This faaily authority has no connection with the 
authority exercised by the state through its laws enforced by its police 
and judicial authorities. But the organization of faaily govenunent 
is the result of centuries of custom and has become a fixed part of 
Japanese life. In so far as they are practicable with nodern conditions, 
the custoMs and traditions of old Japan are recognize! by modern Japane- 
se law. In the cities and centers of industries the population has, to some 
degree, broken loose fron old restrictions and customs. Modern requirements 
have brought into existence a roving population that has lost all sense of 
subservience to faaily restraint. Their old feeling of respect for the 



-85- 



elders of their homes and for the families of their old feudal lords has 
becone greatly weakened if not entirely lost by association with other 
members of the class that is rapidly forming what may be designated as 
the skilled labor organizations of today. The tendency is to organize 
into labor unions for mutual advantage and protection and to secure 
individual voice in the selection of govemnent representatives and the 
making of laws. It is from this class that the opposition politicians 
find their greater support and front whom the recent outcry for universal 
suffrage principally comes. The present manifestations of social unrest 
that are growing more and more apparent are but the reaction of the world- 
wide terrible social upheaval that is distracting mankind. Its serious- 
ness in Japan is nore apparent than real. The conservative elenent of 
this country which includes the entire rural population, the back bone of 
the country, is unaffected by it. The froth of the cities which makes 
such an outcry for all sorts of ill considered and dangerous changes may 
be troublesome but can never be dangerous so long as the steady support of 
the conservative element of the country remains as it is today in sympa- 
thy and support of the real government of Japan. 



JAPANESE ATTITUDE TOWARDS FOREIGNERS. 



It seems to be the belief of nany foreigners that the Japanese 
are secretive and wanting in frankness and truthfulness in their dealings 

A 

and, if not absolute liars by nature, are at least deceijitful and untrust- 

ゾ 

worthy. My long life in Japan, nany years of which in most intimate 
association with all classes of her people, entitles me to speak with some 

authority in regard to the national characteristics of the Japanese as a 

A 

people. I have no hesitancy in declaring that far from being the deceijitful 

V 



-86- 



un truthful and dishonest people as charged by nany writers, they will 
coMpare Host favorably in these respects with Europeans and Anericans. 
The sweeping charges of innorality made against the Japanese, as we 
understand the aeaning of that word, are as absurd as it would be to clai 觀 
that they are all saints and that when they err it is in all innocence and 
fron lack of knowledge of evil. 

In early days, at all open ports the shop keepers with whon 
foreign tourists, in particular, cane in contact were, with few exceptions 
absolutely lacking in cownercial integrity. It was fear of loss of trade 
to less greedy competitors that restrained then at all. Since the 
opening of the entire country to foreign residence and trade, conditions 
among the small trades has greatly changed for the better, but doubtless 
there is still much room for improvement. But when it is reffiembered that 
before the restoration the trader held a very low position socially, that 
next to the coolie and was expected to overcharge his customers in propor- 
tion to their position and ability to be cheated, it is not surprising that 
the shopping experiences of foreigners in early days were very unsatis- 
factory and that Japanese shop keepers were, as a class, universally 
designated as unmitigated rogues and cheats. But from tine imenorial 
the integrity of the Japanese artisan has been recognized by all who have 
had dealings with then. They were as jealous of their reputaion for 
honest work and honest prices as the sane class of workmen in Europe or 
America. 

With the opening of Japan to foreign trade which for «any years 
as entirely in the hands of foreign finis, an entirely different class of 
Japanese Merchants and business nen began to appear. In the beginning they 
acted nerely as the agents of foreign firms but, little by little, they 
began, in a small way, direct trade with foreign countries on their own 



-87- 



account. In time they established their own branches at all important 
ports in foregin countries. Today it is the Japanese merchant[sj that control 
the trade of Japan and the foreign houses represented in Japan by branches are 
practically, only the agents of the Japanese* 

The Japanese merchant of today is as far removed from the 
despised shop keeper of early days as day is from night* I think I an not 
exaggerating in stating that he compares favorably with the same class 
in Europe and the United States. He and his compeers in Mining and all 
branches of manufacturing industry have made for themselves a name for 
straight dealing that is respected by all foreigners in Japan who have had 
business relations with them. Some years since, I was present at an enter- 
tainment given by a branch of the Hitsu Bishi Co., at which many foreign- 
ers were present. One of the most prominent of these, a very highly 
reps pec ted Englishman, took [the] occasion to say that of all the coiwiercial 
houses with which he had had business relations, the Mitsu Bishi was the only 
firm in the world, not excepting those of his own country, whose word 
he preferred to their bond. He said that when he had their bond he was 
certain of getting exactly what it called for. If their word only, he 
was sure of receiving more than was promised, 

- The Feudal Spirit - 

The organizations of all large trading, industrial, Manufactu- 
ring and producing Japanese firms is certainly on a far more liberal 
scale or basis than is dreamed of in Europe or America. The relations 
between the conpany and its employees is entirely different. The employee 
feels that he is part of the fim and that his advancement and well being 
in it rests entirely with himself. He knows that he is secure in bis 
living for life. That after serving the conpany for a fixed number of 
years he will be entitled to retire on a good pension as long as 产 lives* 
If he is disabled by accident or disease, the insurance fund set apart for 



-88- 



that purpose* will not only support him during his om life, but also his 
chilaren until they are of sufficient age to support themselves in enploy- 
nent furnished then by the cooipany. 

In the natter of bonuses Japanese firns are liberal to a degree 
that Mould be considered absurd by foreign firns. When the year's business 
has been unusually profitable as has been the case for several years 
past, after a liberal dividend has been allowed to share holders and reser- 
ve adequately provided for, the surplus is alaost entirely absorbed in bonus 
to employees. Last year bonus paid to their employees by all the principal 
firms in Japan was very large. This recognition is not confined to the 
high grade enployees only. Every workHan in the peraanent service of the 
company benefits in a proportionate degree. Naturally the relations 
existing between enployee and enployer in Japan are entirely diffjtrent 
from those prevailing in the west. Here there is a feeling of nutual 
respect and esteem, possibly the outgroMth of self interest towards the 
conpany they all serve. 

The relations between master and servant in Japan are also 
entirely different froM those exisitng in Europe and Anerica. The servant 
in Japan is an hunble nenber of the family and, unless guilty of gross 
Misconduct, is as Much a permanent fixture in the fanily as the legitiirate 
members thereof. Such relations in the higher families naturally influen- 
ces the social relations of all classes* The fonts of etiquette practiced 
by high class Japanese are naturally observed and followed by the lower 
classes as closely as is consistent with their position and calling in 
life. The expressions of courtesy manifested by all well bred Japanese in 
their relations with one another in their daily life is the outgrowth of 
respect for the feelings of others and an earnest desire to please. The 



善 



Japanese are an exceedingly amiable people, always ready to go more than 
half way to secure the good will of foreigners in which they are influenced 
more by a feeling of good will and good fellowship than by any thought of 
advantage to thenselves* Always ready to assist one another when in trouule 
I have never yet known of a case where the helping hand was not extended 
to the stranger in distress. In the recent wars in which they have been 
engaged, compare their treatment of enemy subjects residing among them 
with the treatment extended by the nost civilized nations in Europe, Conpa- 
re their treatment of prisoners of war with that of the sane enlightened 
Christian nations. In a thousand ways the Japanese have manifested their 
desire to live in peace with all nen and by their acts, have approached 
nearer to the observance of peace on earth and good will amongst men 
as commanded by Christ, than many of the great nations that profess to be 
the followers of his teachings and send thousands of missionaries to the 
east to inpart the true faith. Only a few months since a senator of 
the United States in the Senate chanber at Washington spoke of the Japanese 
who only fifty years ago were emerging from barbarism! That such a colos- 
sal fool should live and even be a senator of the United States dia not 
strike me as very extraordinary but that such a foul, brutal insult 
to a friendly people, whose civilisation was far advanced when we had none 
at all, was not rebuked was permitted to pass unchallenged by a body of wen 
selected for their ability and enlightenaient to form the Senate of the 
United States caused a feeling of shane for my country that I can never 
forget. 

The past few years the slogan of politicians, professors, states- 
men and students has been denocracy as the sovereign renedy for all ills 
that afflict Mankind! Of the hundreds of wise wen who have written and 
spoken on this subject are there any two whose definition of democracy is 



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the sane? And if so, would they recoMiend that the denocratic fom of 
governnent that has been success in one country should be established 
in all other countries? For example take the dewocracy of the United 
States under which the people of that country have grown and prospered 
wonderfully for 140 years, would they apply it to Japan? The A«erican 
republic was forced into existence by the Bisgovernnent of the ■other 
country, not by an uprising brought about by sentimental theorists. The 
people of thirteen colonies found themselves forced into a position that 
obliged them to unite in the establishment of a fom of government for 
their own protection and well being. As long as our country was a poor and 
struggling nation our republic retained all the simplicity and representa- 
tive forn that our forefathers intended: "A governwent of the people, by 
the people and for the people". Can any Anerican say that it is the sane 
today? Besides the splendid sacrifices nade by the people in their blood 
and treasure when called upon to save the world in a terrific crisis not 
yet safely weathered, what voice have the people of the United States had 
in the making of peace and readjustment of affairs that nay so vitally 
affect our future? They were frooi the beginning in the hands of an auto- 
crat who tine and again declared that he would act as he thought fit, 
absolutely disregarding ttie popular will and other branches of the govern- 
ment elected by the people. The advocates of liberalism, as it is designa- 
ted, speak of it as the spirit of deaocracy and hunan brotherhood, American 
democracy has certainly taught individualism, it has inculcated the belief 
in "every van for himself and the devil take the hindwost", but as for the 
human brotherhood as practiced in Japan for the past two thousand years, 
the idea is preached in our churches but its practice is left to charita- 
ble institutions maintained for the purpose. In the civil service of the 
United States what care or provision is nade for the public servant who 



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from age and illness is unable to continue his duties. He is ruthlessly 
cast out as Morn-out shoe is discarded without care or thought for the 
suffering of one who has spent his life in the service of his country. 
The sane practice prevails in regard to the servants of our industrial 
concerns. The managenent claim that they pay liberally for services 
rendered and if their eaployees are careful they can retire on a competen- 
cy before old age overtakes then. But if the enployee is 
not of a careful or saving nature or that he has nade bad investments that 
has swallowed up his savings, what then? Oh! We are sorry for him but 
cannot be held responsible for failures of that kind. But under [the] conditions 
existing in Japan today as they have existed for tens of centuries, they 
would be held responsible. Under Japan's feudal system of governnent and 
family life, every roan's place, occupation and responsibilities were fixed 
and he was provided for from the cradle to the grave. It is true his free- 
dom as an individual was very much restricted. This brought about the 
desire for greater personal freedom, in the student class and anong the 
residents of cities where foreign ways are more in evidence in the life of 
the people. The harsher requirements of the old feudal days nay be modified 
to conform to the change of recent years, but to advocate the abolition of 
the old feudal life that has been the very spirit of the people of Japan 
for twenty- five hundred years for an ideal democracy untried and misunder- 
stood is, to Biy Mind, the height of folly. What purpose have the advocates 
of universal suffrage in view? To add several nil lions of ignorant voters 
to the large nunber of slightly less ignorant persons who noM exercise 
that privilege cannot result in a more intelligent House of representatives 
being secured. If not in the belief that it can, what object its advocates 
have in view? Surely it cannot be believed that the mere privilege of 
voting will nake better men of those who now have not the privilege* 



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- Political DeveloDinents - 
Universal suffrage has certainly not had that desirable effect on character 
in the United States. In what respect has it improved the ten 矚 illions of 
negroes, two millions of whom have the right to vote? And what benefit have 
real Americans derived from the privilege granted to ignorant foreigners 
who value their right to vote only as something they can sell to the 
highest bidder. Eninent professors and wise«en of this country are 
speaking nuch just now of public opinion, of its condeaming the action 
of the government in this, that, and the other. Of its demands for party 
governnent & Just what do they nean by public opinion? If they »ean the 
opinion of the highly educated classes, lawyers, scientists, college profes- 
sors and the leading politicians who are just now out and want to get in, 
I can understand their contention. If they mean the Japanese people en 
masse, they are talking utter blatant nonsense. The average Japanese farmer 
for instance, knows nothing of political issues and cares less. When le- 
gislation or decrees affect his personal interests he is not slow in 
expressing his opinion in regard thereto, favorably or unfavorably, as ix 
may affect him. He detests nilitary service, but recognizes that the safe- 
ty of the Empire denands it. He is a lover of peace and disposed to live 
in good fellowship with the entire world, but he detests injustice and is 
quick to resent disregard of what he believes to be his rights. In short 
the Japanese are a kindly disposed, generous people, if left undisturbed by 
agitators, visionary theorists and so-called refomers, native and foreign. 
They will in time, develop along Japanese lines into a great people and 
nation. 

But the Japanese of today was a civilized being three thousand 
years ago and the teachings, traditions and gradual develop»ent of thirty 



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countries has made him what he is now. He is not an European, American or 
Chinaman, He is a Japanese and any attempt to bring about the * pangs of 
spiritual rebirth" as one eminent professor claims they are now under- 
going. Bust end either in failure or national disaster. He must advance as a 
Japanese or be absorbed by a stronger civilization. Bolshevism has already 
started on its eastern narch. When it reaches the borders of Korea Japan 
must be strong enough to check its onward march or be overwhelmed in its 
flood. 

Another eminent professor of the Imperial University contributes 
an article entitle [d]: "New thought in Japan: The growth of Liberal isM and its 
eventual Triuraph*. If these eminent scholars would turn their eyes from 
the beautiful picture, in fancy, of a new Japanese democracy living in peace 
and loving good will with all the world, to the terrible cloud that is even 
noM looming in the west, they night give more thought to the safety of 
Japan as she is today and even think better of militarism as they call it, 
and recognize the wisdom of Maintaining their military preparedness. The 
leading men of Japan know they have nothing to fear from America, that an 
armed conflict between the two countries, if not impossible, is extremely 
improbable. But they do recognize the danger threatening fro» the 
directly opposite direction. The Russians have for generations been stri- 
ving for southern outlets to the sea and as Russian future development 
will, it seens, be towards the east, as the line of least resistance seems 
to be towards that direction, her interests and those of Japan must meet in 
conflict before nany years have passed. If there ever was a tine when 
every able bodied son of Japan should be trained to defend the national 
existence of their countr^, that tine is now. It is not Militarism that 
demands it, but simple prudence and cooHBon sense. 



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In the archives of our embassy is anple evidence of the open, 
frank and perfectly friendly relations that have fro* the beginning 
governed the intercourse between America and Japan. My personal relations 
with all the eminent men of Japan at that tine, including Prince I to, 
Marquis Inouye (the elder) Count Hutsu, Count Hayashi and many other pro - 
ninent statesmen who have passed to the other shore, left nothing to be 
desired. And I know that the relations of American representatives 
who preceeded ne and of those who cane after, have been just as cordial and 
satisfactory with the representative men of their tine as was the case in 
»ine. There was no idea of concealment in our intercourse. Our object 
always was to ascertain the truth in any question affecting the interests 
of the two countries in order to ascertain the proper action to be taken, 
if action was necessary to prevent misunderstanding. As far as my own 
experience goes, I can testify that in government policy ana in business 
relations with rivals in trade, the Japanese are inclined to be remarkably 
frank and open in their dealings with foreigners and their own people 
alike. 

- Work during the Japan- China War_ - 
At the beginning of the Japanese- Chinese war, 1894-95, with the 
consent of the President, I arranged that the American Legations at Tokio 
and Peking night be freely Made use of by the Japanese and Chinese govern- 
ments as a channel of indirect comsunication between the two governments. 
Numberless questions arose relating to the trade and welfare of the people 
of both countries that had no connection with the prosecution of the war 
that could be adjusted only through the good offices of a third party. For 
instance I would receive a note from Count Mutsu relative to trade or some 
other question affecting the interests of Japanese or Chinese, I would 
at once telegraph the note word for word to Mr. Denby at Peking, using 



-95- 



the secret code of the American government. Mr. Denby would send a transla- 
tion of the note to the Chinese Tsung Li Yanen with a covering note. 
Within a day or so he would receive a note addressed to himself, from the 
Chinese giving the views of the Chinese Governnent on the natter he had 
coummunicated to them. This he would, in turn, telegraph to me in code which 
I would at once translate and send to Count Mutsu. The freqency 
and length of notes that passed through the two legations was surprising. 
Particular ily towards the end of the war the channel of coianunication which 
we had provided was freely used by both belligerents to bring about 
negotiations for peace and I an confident that our good offices were the 
means of shortening the war by several months. Many of the notes received 
for transmission were of such confidential nature that I deemed it best 
to make use of but one member of the legation in handling them and that 
was Dr. W.N. Whitney, interpreter of legation who was very reliable and 
careful in such matters. Many of these notes would be of 500 or 600 
words , several of 1000 or more were received for transmission. The frequen- 
cy of their receipt was such that I did not feel at liberty to absent 
myself from the legation for more than a few hours at a time during the 
entire period of the war. As a matter of fact I did not pass one night 
away from the legation during that entire time. Frequently notes would 
reach me when Dr. Whitney was away or not available. In such case I was 
under the necessity of putting the note in cipher iiyself. Any one who 
has been obliged to code a note of five or six hundred words, word for 
word, in order that when translated by the receiver of the telegram the 
note will read exactly as the original, will understand what considerable 
work is necessary. Several times day light has found ne still at work 
on such a message received the evening before. 

That our work was appreciated by both the Japanese and Chinese 
governments was evidenced by the desire expressed by both governsents to 



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confer upon Mr. Denby and myself the highest decorations ever conferred 
upon Ministers Plenipotentiary at that tine. As decorations fro* foreign 
governments could not be accepted by officers in the service of the United 
States except under peniission granted by special act of Congress, we 
respectfully requested both governments to withhold the offer and thereby 
relieve us of the nortification of being obliged to decline the acceptance 
of so great an hear. 



End of My Diplomatic Career 
My story practically ends with the temination of my diplonatic 
career in 1897. I was relieved of my post in the sane brutal Manner 
that thousands of better men than nyself have experienced at every change 
of administration. In ny case the Department of State had not the decen- 
cy to notify me of the appointment of ny successor Mr. Buck. It was left to 
that gentleman to find his way to Tokio and the legation as best [asj he could, 
introduce himself to me and exhibit his credentials together with 矚 y let- 
ter of re-call. And it was left to me, without instructions, to accoMpany 
him to Kioto, present him to the Enperor and, at the same ti«e take leave of 
His Majesty myself. 

I believe it would be difficult to find a parallel in any civi- 
lized country in the world of such an absence of dignity and 
unqualified brutality as was exhibited by our Depart«ent of State on that 
occasion. 

I will only add that shortly after my recall I went to America 
and, having business in Washington, called on our new Secretary of State 
Mr, Shenan of Ohio, ny own State. He received m with seeming pleasure and 
■uch to «y astonislwent remarked that, doubtless I was about to leave for